IF The Manufactures of Silk, Wool, and Thread conduce very much to the Improvement and Advantage of Trade; Dying which adorns them with that agreeable variety of Colours, in imitation of what is most Beautiful in Nature, is the Soul which animates them; and without which they would be Spiritless Bodies.
Wool and Silk which in their natural Colour, rather shew the rusticity of the times, than any Genius in Man or the politeness of the Age; Would afford but a very indifferent Commerce, if Dying did not give 'em those Beauties Which cause a demand and render 'em desirable even amongst the barbarous Nations.
All visible things are distinguish'd and become desirable by their Colours; and 'tis not sufficient that the Colours are fine, to support and incourage the Trade of Stuffs; but they ought also to be good and equally lasting with the Stuffs themselves. The example of Nature its self clearly informs us of the difference : For if she bestows but a weak Colour upon Flowers, which quickly fades ; she alters her measures in Herbs, Metals and Precious Stones, which she endows with a stronger Dye, and a Colour proportjon'd to their duration.
We have in FRANCE great plenty of Woad, (*VOUDE) red Madder, Chermes Berries, SPANISH Broom and *Walnut Trees; not to mention several other Ingredients the Enumeration, Culture and Advantages of which, I shall shew in the twelfth Part of the Instructions; and indeed we want only Cocheneal to make us possessors of the Six best Druggs for Dying. Are not we then blind Enemies to our own welfare, in despising these excellent Dyes, and draining our Native Country of its money to purchase unprofitable Druggs of strangers, which only serves to Bastardize our Dyes and ruine our trade in Stuffs; and in the mean time ingratefully reject the Benefits which liberal Nature advantageously distributes to us.
*A worse sort of Woad so called. The Best being called PasteL.
*Racine from whence Couleur De Racine i.e. a Colour made from several parts of the Walnut Tree.
'Twas for this reason that his Majesty out of His justice and prudence, caused general Rules to be made for the better encouragement of Manufactures and Dying, and made them be Registered in his Presence in the Court of Parliament of PARIS, August 13, 1669, and sent Commissioners to put them in execution in all His provinces, the success of which has discovered its self in a very advantagious reformation in all our Manufactures. But as 'tis impossible to remedy at once all the abuses are crept into the Manufacture of Dying alone, by the injury of Time and the Villany or Ignorance of Men: And as 'tis not to be expected that any thing should he absolutely perfected in the beginning: So Time discovered other evils which wanted to be cured and faults which wanted to be mended. But his Majesty being inclin'd to put His last Hand to this Work; was of opinion that it could not be better done, than by causing Instructions to be drawn up more extensive than His Rules; which shou'd not only be capable to direct the Dyers in the observation of the mention'd Rules, and preparing good and Beautiful Dyes: But also to enable the judges of the POLICE &c. to Correct the abuses.
But perhaps some may object against this Instruction ; that it is too exact, that it discovers too many of the Secrets of Dying, and gives strangers an opportunity to take advantage of it. But as it is impossible to Instruct FRENCH Men otherwise, and we cannot be too nicely exact to prevent the decay and prevent the welfare of this Art; this objection seems too weak to deprive the Publick of this Work; especially if we consider that the utmost care that can be taken to keep up the Secrets of Dying, cannot hinder some to whom they must be intrusted from publishing them in a strange Country, if encouraged with the prospect of a small advantage to themselves; but and on the other side Strangers can reap no benefit by this Instruction Without producing in their Country a greater demand for the Dying Materials which FRANCE affords, the Profit of which will abundantly compensate our Secret of Dying. And we cannot but observe that the SPANIARDS who by all possible means have endeavoured to keep their Trade in the INDIES close lock'd up, have not made so good a Market of it as the HOLLANDERS who Publjsh'd theirs as much as possible by their Writings.
Others assert that Dying ought to be left free, and without the least restriction, because the good and durable Dyes enhance the price of our Stuffs and consequently hinder our Trade by lessening the demands: But the answer is easy, for this rise of the price (whilst the Money stayes in FRANCE by reason of the use of our own Druggs) being much less than the profit that arises thereby, cannot be considerable nor injurious to the publick, for 'tis well known that a Cloth of fifteen or twenty LIVRES the Ell, being well Dyed with red Madder, is but fifteen or sixteen SOLS the Ell dearer, than one that is not, nor does the same Cloth well Dyed with Woad become any dearer as than with Madder; tho', in the real value, Beautiful wearing, Goodness of Colour, and Lasting of the Stuff, 'tis one third better. Experience convinces us that the SPANISH black Cloaths have always been preferred to the DUTCH and ENGLISH purely for the excellence of their Dye ; tho' the Wool is of equal goodness and the make of the latter incomparably better than SPANISH and much cheaper.
'Tis impossible to wear Purple, Dove Colour, deep or light Violet Colours (Dyed with Brasil Wood) one month without fading, soiling, spoting, and Staining: And these Colours after they are Dyed Crimson cost indeed somewhat more, but you have then a Colour which will continue Beautiful as long as the Stuffs themselves, and if Spoted with dirt or grease can easily be Scoured and cleaned without danger of losing or injuring the Colour.
The Red * Madder dye is a Colour which never fades or changes, and is near as cheap as that done with Brasjl which is a bastard Colour, besides that the former grows in FRANCE and the latter is a product of a foreign Land.
* Rouge de Garance.
Indigo which produces a bastard Colour is only used because it is sometimes cheaper tho' often dearer than Woad, which yields one of the best Colours in the World, and hath formerly vastly enriched LANGUEDOC. The first Drugg being a stranger, wou'd it not be reasonable to prefer the second for being our own, tho' we had no respect to the fineness of its Colours ?
The difference in the Price between the true and a bastard Colour in narrow Stuffs is so small that the best black of the Serges DE RONE or DE * CHALLONS cannot cost above four SOLS more than the worst and the RAZES DE CHATRES and ETAMINES D' AMIENS but two SOLS; and yet those who are to wear them would not be without the Colour for one third part of the Stuff.
* vulgarly serge shalloons.
In this Instruction there is a good provision made for Stuffs of small value that they may not want a Dye suitable to their fineness and duration, without being at a great expence; tho' Dying never makes the Stuffs much dearer without the Colour its self be extraordinary, and the Stuffs thereby rendered more vendible.
If the difference in the Price betwixt a good and bad Dye is inconsiderable in Stuffs, 'tis yet less in Woolls which are used in mixed Stuffs, for they don't require an extraordinary bright Dye; neither do they take up many nor any very dear Druggs; because in Stuffs of this nature Dyed Wool is commonly mixed with raw or undyed, and good and dear Colours with worse and cheaper.
One Ell of Cloth of Ten, Twelve, or Fifteen LIVRES the Ell, weighs about three pounds, in which we need put no more than a third or fourth part of Violet Crimson Wool in the mixture; and tho' that be the dearest Colour which can be used in this mixture yet according to the 48 Article of this Instruction with a small ground of Madder or wild or Bastard Cochineal, the price of Cloath will not be raised above five or six SOLS the Ell higher than the bastard Dye tho' the mixture is really one third better in goodness.
If there are other Dyes which enhance the price of mixt Cloths equally or near as much as Crimson, there are several others that do not augment the price above two SOLS the Ell, besides in a mixt Colour where a third part Crimson (or any dear Dye) is once used, for Thirty times, there is not above or 1/8 or 1/20 or none at all used.
An ETAMINE DE RHEIMS & DE CHALONS which ought to be 11 or l2 Ells long, and weighs ordinarily about three pounds, requires but a Third or almost one half of black Wool in the mixture, which being first Dyed Sky Colour with Woad is but four or five SOLS dearer than unwoaded Wool, which doth not come to above Five DENIERS the Ell, not to speak of those ETAMINES where they don't put above one Sixth or Eighth of Black Wool, which makes the difference still less, tho' the Stuff is one Sixth part better to the buyer, besides that the black which has been first Woaded blew wears better and is much stronger than that which has not. He must be very ignorant in Dying and the Manufacture of Stuffs, that can believe that Woad renders the Wool hard or untractable, and tears or hinders the combing of it, when 'tis very well known that these inconveniences proceed from the Black Dye for want of the necessary ingredients, or due care in the performance; when if the Wool is Woaded, less Coperas is required to the Black, which is the only material that hardens it; but in the Dying Wool with Woad and black according to this Instruction, all these inconveniences are avoided and the small charge which arises thereupon is very advantagiously repaid.
Some will object that good Druggs are harder to work than the slighter, but this objection is in part owing to the pleasure which men take in slight work rather than good, and the uncommon pains they take in hopes of greater profit by the bastard Colour than the true: But if they would work with the same pleasure and application on the true Dye; they would succeed as well in these as in the others, and those who are not well enough instructed in the Art, have no more to do but to follow this instruction, which will remove their greatest obstructions, and inform them in the knowledge of several Drugs that very few knew to be of use in Dying.
It may also be alledged that several provinces abound in different Herbs, Roots, &c. proper for Dying, and have not only Commodities, but manners of working peculiar to themselves, which they will be deprived of the advantage of by this uniformity, that is to be setled in FRANCE; also that Dyers will hereby loose the advantage of what secrets they may discover in their Art. But as this uniformity only regards the establishment of the publick good, His Majesty does not hereby pretend to seclude any of these advantages to the Dyers, but only till they are viewed and examined upon the spot to see whether it be more profitable than injurious; in which case, no person will be deprived of the use of their own materials if they are good, and if know the most advantagious manner of using them. As Dying well is not without its reward of honour and profit which accrues to the Dyers in recompence of their labour, so the ill Dying will not continue without its due punishments; for all the avenues of Favour which were used by the subtil and humble Addresses of Merchants and Dyers to put off their Bastard Dyes are now close shut up, because Orders were given throughout the Kingdom to view and Mark all Merchandises, not only at the place of their Dying but also at the places of Sale and Transportation, under the penalty of confiscation of those which are ill Dyed, are either not Mark'd or wrong Mark'd.
The abuse was also grown frequent in the Manufacture and Dying of Hats as well as Stuffs, for which reason His Majesty hath been pleased to correct it, by a general Rule which is Established as a Law, and Order, for the time to come, amongst all the Hatters of the Realm, and hath thought necessary, to insert in this Instruction, the manner of, and the Drugs proper for a good Black Dye, to the End that the Ignorant Hatters might be informed and furnish'd with Instructions to perfect themselves in Dying, as well as the Judges and Commissioners be enabled to discover and correct the Abuses, which have ruined commerce in the Kingdom, and in Foreign Countries.
It tends then to our own advantage to Dye good Colours, as well as to the Publick Good and advance of the reputation of the Trade and Manufactures of FRANCE. This Instruction furnishes us with the means, to do what our own Consciences exact from us, that being engaged in an employ, we should apply our selves to perfect it so much as in us lyes, and joyfully embrace all means that may enable us to do well, and prevent our doing Ill, which Obliges us to praise the justice and Goodness of our King, who by a Happy Necessity has constrain'd us to do well for fear of being Punished, as knowing that this wholesome fear is the Foundation and beginning of Wisdom amongst Men.
This Instruction is Divided into Twelve Parts In Which is Contain'd:
IN the First, in vii Articles, the Five Principal Simple Colours for the Dying of Wool, the necessary Preparation of Stuffs, to the end they may thoroughly imbibe the Colour of the Dying Ingredient.
In the Second, in xxiv. Articles, beginning with the viiith. and ending with the xxxist. The best manner of using the Dying Ingredients, and of Dying to Perfection the Five Principal simple Colours, and consequently all others, used in the Dying of Wool, which proceed from them.
In the Third, in xiii. Articles, beginning with the xxxiid, and ending with the xlivth. The Mixtures of Colours proceeding from the Five Principal Simple Colours.
In the Fourth, in xxii. Articles, beginning with the xlvth, and ending with the lxvith. The Compound Colours, which are produced by the Mixture of two or more, of the Simple Colours.
In the Fifth, in xxii Articles, beginning with the lxviith, and ending with the lxxxviiith. All Dyers are divided into two sorts, the great or good Dyer, and the lesser Dyer, with the Reasons of this division; the Colours and Stuffs which each of them are freely permitted to Dye, the Apprentiship, Service, and Master pieces which each Dyer ought to perform.
In the Sixth, in xxiv. Articles, beginning with lxxxix., and ending cxii. The Mystery and Manner of Dying Wool for Tapistry and Canvas, the method of reducing the manner used at ROAN and other places to the great and less Dyes, the custom and necessity of using Leads or Signets to prevent the debasing our Stuffs and the falsification of our Dyes.
In the Seventh, in xiv, beginning with cxiii., and ending with cxxvi. The Drugs used to Dye the great or good Dyes, and the lesser Dyes; also those which are prohibited. The necessity of keeping their Books well, and of visiting the Dyers of both great and lesser Dyes.
In the Eighth, in xxxii Articles, beginning with cxxvii, ending with clviii. The reasons why some Druggs ought to be Prohibited and others permitted; why there some which ought to be allowed in some Colours, and forbidden in others, with other reasons which may serve as an answer to the Memorial design'd to be presented on this affair, and to the Objections which may be raised against this Instruction.
In the Ninth, in xxxvi. Articles, beginning with clix., and ending with cxciv. The Materials and manner of preparing a good black, with the necessary Woad and Madder grounds suitable to the goodness and Duration of the Stuffs. Also the method of preparing Stuffs, with Galls, &c. And the finishing of black.
In the Tenth, in xli., beginning with cxcv., and ending ccxxxv. The Grounds and Manner of Dying Black those Stuffs which have chang'd or lost their colour; the manner of Dying Black those which shou'd be mended, and Wools serving for Mixtures ; also of Dying slight Stuffs very cheap, with the Druggs necessary to, and the way of making the Proof boilings to try the Goodness of the Dye.
In the Eleventh Part, in xx. Articles, beginning with ccxxxvi., and ending with cclv. Of the Dying of Threds, Cloths made of Hemp, Linnen, Cotton, with what is necessary to the Perfection of Silk Dying; also to the making and well Dying of Hats.
In the Twelfth, in lxii, beginning with ccli., ending with cccxvii. The Advantage which will accrue to the publick, by the Use, Culture and greater Trade in the Good Druggs which abound in FRANCE, such as the Woad, the better and slighter sort of Madder, SPANISH Broom; Walnut Tree Root, Rinds and Shells, Chermes Berries, the Antient Purple SARRETTE, GENISTROLLE, RODOUL, Fovic, Tartar, dry Tartar, Verdigrease, Pot Ashes, Mineral Salts used in Dying, Allom, Galls, Alder Bark, FUSTEL, TREN.. TANEL, MALHERBE, GAROUILLE & ORSEILIS, with the conclusion of this Instruction and the Advantage which may Annually accrue to the Publick.
And lastly a Table of the Articles contain'd in this Instruction.
Those Colours are Blew, Red, Yellow, Tawny or Brown, and Black.
Stuffs to be Dyed Red or Yellow must be boiled with Allom, Tartar and other Ingredients, which afford no Colour themselves, according to the Directions given hereafter.
Those to be Dyed Black must be boiled with Galls and Sumach, and for want of Sumach, with RODOUL or Fovic; being well prepared with these Ingredients, they turn of a Colour betwixt Tawny and Grey, and 'tis here to be observed that the Tawny or Brown is the same with the Colour Dyed with the several Parts of Walnut Tree.
But those Stuffs which are to be Dyed Blew or Brown, must be Immediately taken from the Fulling Mills, and so be Dyed without any Previous preparation.
The cleanest and whitest Stuffs, which are made of the finest Wool, take the most bright and beautiful Colour.
The Stuffs whitned with Sulphur or Ceruse, ought to be very well cleansed from the pernicious relicts of those Ingredients, which hinder the penetration and beauty of the Dye, and prevent the Union of the Colours.
AFTER the Author in the third Article hath directed us to boil our Stuffs, design'd for Red or Yellow, in Allom; in the fourth Article For Black, in Galls; in the Fifth Article He proceeds to instruct us to Dye Blew and Light Brown, just as they come from the Fulling Mills: But we ought to take Notice that tho' Woad Blew is a very subtil Penetrating Colour, which tinges very freely, yet Indigo is stronger, and to say truth Corrodes.
Wherefore in the first preparation of Wool, before it is brought to the Fulling Mills, it ought to be very well cleansed with Hogs grease; But in our GERMAN Dye House, Allom is frequently used in Blew's and is become sometimes necessary by reason of the great use of Indigo, (as will appear in our Observations on the following Article) I mean in the preparing of Stuffs. Tho others are for putting the Allom into the Vessel with the Dye, the first way makes the Dye take the better, and the last as well as the first, turns the Dye more towards the Black, than right Indigo would, if its strength were not somewhat broken by the Allom. For it would then become a sort of Violet. This is needless in Woad ; In the preparation for Reds and Yellow Dyes, Article 3, the Allom is design'd to make the Colours take the better; only in Blacks we ought to consider whether they are first dyed Blew, for the Best Blacks are those first Dyed with a Blew ground, especially if with Woad alone, which produces a Colour very different from Indigo as we shall shew. And if Black were Dyed without any other ground, Galls wou'd be very necessary, tho' in our Country they are very seldom used, for they perform the whole Dye with one Suds; but every Place hath it's particular method.
As to the 7th Article we seldom Whiten whole Pieces of Stuff this way that come to be dyed, unless it be Womens Gowns, which have been worn White a whole Summer, are to be Dyed against Winter; but the remedy is easy in ( ) either case for Soap Lye or Lime will remove the rough hardness of the Sulphur, and fair Water will remedy the Ceruse.
THE Blew Dye is prepared from the best Woad called Pastel, which grows in the upper LANGUEDOC, and is the best and most necessary Drug in the Art of Dying; with VOUEDE, which is a sort of Woad, that's weaker and less substantial, and grows in NORMANDIE; and with Indigo which comes from the INDIES; which (tho' used alone is none of the best Colours yet,) never misses of success, if you do not mix above the quantity of Six Pound, with every Bail of Woad, and if it be not used before it is prepared in Copper and in the two first heatings.
The Dyers ought to be left to their liberty to put the Six Pounds of Indigo in the great copper, or to reserve a Part for the first, or for both heatings, that they may the more Conveniently prepare their lesser Dyes ; but they ought to be strictly forbidden to use Indigo, without it be first prepared with Tartar Ashes, or otherwise than with Woad, or put any more then Six Pound to every Bail of Woad, or to Heat it any more than twice, because a failure in any of these Particulars will produce a false or Bastard Dye. For the Substance of the Woad which is Necessary to correct the Indigo, will be wasted in the Working in the Copper and the two heatings.
The VOUEDE or weaker Woad is not strong enough to correct the ill qualities of the Indigo, if not assisted by the virtue of the Pastel or best Woad, especially in the heatings where it is void of the substance which is wasted in the Copper. The quantity of Indigo ought not to be regulated by the weaker Woad, but by that of the best when it is put into the Copper, if you would have a good blew fit to be afterwards Dyed black.
If the Dyer is obliged to use the weaker Woad without the best, he ought to put as little Indigo into the Copper that the Woad may be able to correct it, a pound of Indigo being sufficient for a hundred of this sort of Woad, and he ought to put the Indigo and the Woad in together, and hinder their growing hot again for reasons above mention'd, of which he ought to take particular care.
The Dyers to help and heighten their blew use Brasjl Wood, or ORSEILLE or Bois D'INDE INDIAN Wood, which bastardises the colour, and makes it wear ill. This falsification cannot be better prevented than by a strict Prohibition that the Dyers of the great Dye should not be suffered to have them in their houses, nor use them in any colour in the great Dye.
The Blew Dye may be rendered brightest by rincing the Stuff after it is Dyed and well washed in a little warm Water alone, or with a little Allom : But it is much better both for the Stuff and Dye to fill it with a Liquid or melted Soap, and afterwards to cleanse it very well from the said Soap. The deeper mixtures of Blew may be helped and heightened without any inconvenience, by first rincing them in Suds and after in Cochenill'd liquor; but if the same measures are taken with Sky colours and the lighter Blews, they will lose their bright Blew Lustre and incline to Grey.
Bran and Starch Waters being good to dry and cleanse Blews from any clammy foulness, when they are design'd for another colour, are of no use in brightening Blews which are finished, as well because the Bran is apt to dry them too much and leave something in the Hair of the Stuffs which spots it like a Leper and hinders the Graining and Shearing the Stuffs, as because the Starch Waters leave a sort of mealiness upon the Stuffs, and deprive them of the necessary pliable softness.
There seven sorts of good Reds, which make four mixtures in the Composition of other Colours. The first is the Scarlet, called the Gobelins or FRENCH Scarlate; the Second Crimson; the Third Madder Red, or ROUGE DE GARANCE; the Fourth, half Scarlate ROUGE DE DEMY grain; the Fifth half Crimson; Sixth ROUGE DE NACARAT DE BOURRE, or Scarlate Shred Dye, a Colour somewhat paler than Orange, enclining to Crimson; The Seventh, The DUTCH Cochineal Scarlate. These seven sorts of good Red, may be reduced to three from the three principal Drugs which gives them the Dye, namely the Kermes Berries, Cochineal and Madder; but this division nor being so proper for the mixtures, or Composition of Colours, we shall rather make Use of the former.
The FRENCH Scarlate after it is boiled with Starch Waters, and again boil'd with other Starch Waters, Allom, a little dry Tartar, and Arsenic, is Colour'd Red with Argaric, Starch Waters, and Chermes Berries in grain and paste, of which Berries the best sort come from LANGUEDOC. Some Dyers superadd Cochineal, others Fenugreek, after which it is brightened with Starch Water, Argaric, Tartar and Turmerick. The Scarlates which are design'd for a deeper Dye, ought not to be brightened, if we don't design they should encline to the Scarlate shred, Nacarat, or Orange Red.
Crimson after 'tis boiled with Starch Waters, allom and dry Tartar is tinged Red with Starch Waters, Tartar and Cochineal, MOSSEQUE OR TESCALL, which comes from the INDIES and is the dearest Drug in Dying.
The Madder Reds after being boiled with Allom, dry Tartar, Bran and Starch Water, are ting'd Red with the finest Madder, which comes from FLANDERS, and which may be Cultivated in several parts of FRANCE where it grows naturally. Some use Realgar or Arsenick, in the BEVILLION or boiling Ingredients others common or other Salt with Wheat Flower in the Madderage, or rather some Arsenick or Spirit of Wine, with Galls or Turmerick.
Half grains or half Scarlates, after being boiled in the same manner as Scarlate, are tinged Red with Argaric, Starch Waters, one half Madder, and the other Chermes Berries, some adding Turmerick when they brighten them in the same manner as Scarlate.
Half Crimsons after boiling as the Crimsons or Madder Reds, are turn'd red with one half Madder, and the other half Cochineal.
The Nacarat Flock or shred Red, is prepared by boiling the Scarlate Flocks or shreds in a BOUILLON with dry Tartar, and afterwards with starch Waters, Allom and Dry Tartar, then moderately Maddered and afterwards soaked in a Lye made of Tartar Ashes, clarifyed and corrected with Urine, and other light non dying Ingredients this is to be used as an essence extracted from the Colour of the Madder. But Your Stuffs ought to be first Dyed Yellow, before they are fit for the reception of this Dye.
DUTCH Scarlate is boiled with Allom, Tartar, Sal Gemmae, AQUA FORTIS and Pease Flower in a tin Kettle, or else with AQUA FORTIS wherein Tin hath been dissolved; this Colour is tinged with Starch, Tartar, AQUA FORTIS and Cochineal MESSECAL or TESCALLE in the same Kettle. The manner of Cochinealing it must differ according as the manner of boiling does. This Colour is one of the brightest, it easily soils or spots either by Dirt, standing Water, Lye or other accidents, of which especial care ought to be taken, tho' there is no other Remedy in this case, than to repass it through the Dye.
Besides these sorts of Reds which are good dyes, and ought to be permitted, there is also another sort made with Brasil Wood, which ought to be prohibited because it produces a bastard Dye, and the Sun, the Air, the Dirt, the least sharp or Salt Water soils and spots it, and because it is a strange Drug which draws a great deal of money out of FRANCE, besides that all the mixtures, which are made with this Colour, may be very well supplied and easily imitated with good Reds and Ingredients, that serve to give and prepare Stuffs to receive a Red Dye.
The finest Yellows after being boiled with Allom alone, or with Allom and dry Tartar, are Coloured with SPANISH Broom, which grows in several Provinces in FRANCE. Turmerick which comes from the Indies, produces also a sort of Yellow, which is none of the best Colours; but serves to tinge Yellow and brighten those Colours wherein Chermes Berries, Cochineal and Madder is used: The Yellow Wood also which comes from the INDIES, produces a Yellow enclining to Gold Colour.
A Third sort of Yellow is made with SARETTE and GENESTRELLE, which because it is not so fine as that made from SPANISH Broom, serves only for Green Phillamorts and other Compound Colours, where it is very proper: it may also be used to dye Carpets, coarse Wool and Stuffes, which don't exceed 20 pence the Ell, in Countries where there is no Spanish Broom.
The Walnut tree Brown is made with the Root, Bark, Leaves of the Tree, and Nut shells, which afford a good Colour. A good Brown may also be made with Chimney Soot; but that being of an unsavoury smell, and Walnut Trees being very plentiful in FRANCE, tis only used in Phillamorts, Ox Colours and other Dyes of that sort, where it is more proper and yields a finer Colour than Walnut tree; and it may likewise be used in Olive Green or Olive Colours.
GAROUILLE yields a Colour betwixt Brown and Grey, and gives a good lustre to mixt Wool, and being cleaned in the fulling Mills may be permitted for the mixture of Wool of a rat coloured Grey, and not for stuffes or other Colours besides the Rat Grey mixture.
Trentanel, Malherbe, Fustel and other ingredients, yield a Colour betwixt Yellow and Brown ; some mix soot with them, to make a perfect Brown, but this and other Colours which are finer being more certainly prepared from SPANISH Brown, and Walnut tree roots, and the two first smelling very offensively and being Prejudicial to the Eyes of those who use them, 'tis proper that the General use of them should be forbid.
Black is prepared or Galled with Galls which come from ALEPPO or ALEXANDRIA, called GALLE A L'EPINE Thorn Galls, and Sumach and in places where they have no Sumach with Rodoul or Fovic, which grow in several Places in France and which are equivalent to Sumach: A Black is also made of Copperas and INDIAN Wood, which last though alone it produces a bastard Colour, yet when used with Galls and Coperas it affords a more durable bright, soft and blacker Colour upon Stuffs, and wears better than if Galls and Coperas were used without it but care ought to be taken that too much of it be not used, and that Woad and Madder be not used too sparingly any more than Galls and Coperas, the INDIAN Wood being to be added to the rest, without any diminution of their proportion but if you would make the hair of the finest and middling sorts of Wool softer or more flexible and pliable to the fingers of the Spinster and in the filling Mill, you ought to augment the INDIAN Wood, and diminish the Coperas in proportion in the Dying Wool Black. You may also use Yellow Wood with a little of the finest verdigrease.
Another sort of Black is made with Alderbark and Smiths, Cutlers or Grinders dust, but as this alone does not yield a good Black, but makes the Stuffes and Wools rough and hard as Well as really injures them ; this sort of Black as Well as that wherein filings of Iron or Copper is used, ought to be absolutely forbidden in all Sorts of Goods and Wool.
Besides the Five Simple Colours, that of ORSEILE makes an agreeable mixture from Peach to blossom Colour Pale Pink, Light Flax, Amaranthy or Red Purple; and INDIAN Wood tinges Stuffs boiled with Allom and Tartar, with a mixture betwixt the light and the dark Violet: but as these two are bastard Colours which may be made good and one may easily imitate that of INDIAN Wood and that of ORSEILE throughout the first Colours, it is necessary to forbid INDIAN Wood absolutely and to permit ORSEILE only in meaner Stuffs not exceeding 20 pence the ElL.
Observations on the Second Part.
FROM the 7th Article to the 15th Article exclusive, the Author treats of the Permission of the most proper ingredients in the Blew Dye; and here 'twill not be improper to remark ; That in our common Dye Houses in our Blews the misuse seems to grow, for they use Indigo alone boiled with Madder and Pot Ashes, or at the most tempered with half Woad. An Example of the first is as follows, which is used and called good Blew by our Diers, &c. Take of Indigo that is good and clear one Pound, of Red Madder as much, of Pot Ashes from three to four pound, four Ladles full of unslaked Lime four Handful's of Wheat Bran, and lastly about eight quarts of Urine, let it boil four Hours, fill the Kettle half full of Water, and after that put in more Water by degrees, keep it lukewarm Twenty four Hours and if it is too weak, put in of unslaked Lime and Pot Ashes of each a Ladle full to strengthen it; we ought also to steep the Indigo in Urine over night to dissolve, otherwise the Lime cannot be well separated from it. If more Indigo be put in the Colour will be Blacker and harder: The Pot Ashes is ordered in so large a quantity as well to break the Madder, as because it will encline to Red and bastardise the Blew, so that a sufficient quantity thereof is required; tho' an unequal quantity is mentioned, yet if it be boiled in the least too much, the whole dye is spoiled or at least rendered weak, or fading and not durable and indeed the dye its self at best is no good, but apt to spot with the least drop of sharp or acid liquors that can fall on the Stuffs.
The following preparation of Indigo and Woad is much better. After your Water hath boiled a little in the Kettle put in four or five Handfuls of Wheat Bran, four pound of Pot ashes, let it boil a good hour, then put in four pound of Madder and let it boil a quarter of an Hour, the Copper being full to about Six Inches and cover'd; then add indigo and Woad of each Six pound and Eleven pound of Pot Ashes, put them into a little Kettle of Warm Water, let it boil moderately about half an Hour, stirring it continually and then put it into the Copper to the other. The Indigo Dye or that prepared from the Indigo alone must be done by a Lye made with Pot ashes with the addition of four or five Handfulls of Bran, As for Arsenic, 'tis a very dangerous Drug. wherefore twou'd be better to try Aquafortis Spirit of Salt, or Sal armoniac in the perfecting this Colour, and dismiss this injurious guest, for fear the very keeping it in our houses, should occasion some ill accidents by it's tastless quality, and because it is customary, after the Washing of new born Infants, for the first week in (GERMANY and in other Countries also) to rub them with Scarlate Cloths, and if this Drug be used, tho' in the least quantity, it may easily occasion very pernicious consequences. The Crimson Dye is very well known, and according to Article xviith, may be very easily prepared, if it receives no damage from the Fire, upon the due care of which depends more than is imagined, as he that tries will find to his loss ; however to oblige the Lovers of this Art, I will give the following proof of the preparation of this Dye: Make a Meal Water with sour Wheat Bran, LIQUEFIE it, and put it into Rain water and boil them together, then take Cochineal, (which has the precedent Night been dissolved in Water) put in first a little in a Ladle into the Water, and then stir it about, and so on till you have put in all; then the Stuffs to be Dyed, being before Allom'd, are to be put in, and when that is done they may if the Dyer pleases, be drawn thro a Lye to which may be added Tartar Ashes, or, take of Cochineal and White wine lees, or Tartar, an equal quantity, and put 'em into Hot Water, and let the Stuffs be rinced in it or drawn thro it, some add a little Arsenic, but there is yet no good Reason given why.
In the xviiith Article the manner of Dying Madder Red is prescribed, which is indeed not very difficult: One Pound of Madder is sufficient to Dye viii. pound of Stuff, it being first prepared and disposed to the reception of the Colour, by Allom and Tartar. Pot Ashes very much heightens Madder Dyes. Bran or Bran Water ought always to be mixt amongst the Red Dye. As for Brandy or Spirit of Wine, it brightens and throws forth the Colours, in an extraordinary manner, searching into the inmost Parts of the Dye, and cleansing it from all TERRESTREITY, spots or soils, and by the use of it the Dyer will find an Incredible advantage accrue to him. Turmerick is used alone in the Yellow and the mixture of Galls turns it Brown, the Virtues of which you have in Article iv. Half Crimson of both sorts in Article xix. and xx. may according to the Dyers pleasure, and capacity be used; that in Article xxi. Called Nacaret Red is unusual, and unknown, and accompanied with a great deal of unnecessary Labour and Charge, and withal very Unprofitable because it is not lasting. The DUTCH Scarlate is most in use and is well enough described in Article xxii. For every Pound of Stuff, must be used one Ounce of Cochineal, more or less according to its Goodness One Ounce and an half of AQUAFORTIS; in the Alloming some put Sal Armoniac in the place of Allom in the Suds; the Cochineal must always be beaten and prepared with Tartar. Scarlate is nothing else but a bright Crimson, more or less changed to the Yellow, and Aquafortis is the Ground of the whole change, for in a Wine Glass the Dye may be turned even to Yellow, and after bright again, and with Precipitating what the Dye consists of be brought to no Colour. That this Scarlate will easily spot, is too well known, and the Cause thereof very clear; and all Water brings it more or less to a Crimson again. Starch encreases the Substance of the Dye, thickens it and renders it more Viscous, and stiffens the Stuff by its Mealy Nature. The Fernabock Brasil Red, is very common in our Dyeries, for they Dye a sort of Crimson with that and Pot Ashes, mention'd, Article xxiii. tho' Experience contradicts his Assertion there. When we come to speak of mixt Dyes, we shall say something of a Scarlate, prepared from the Madder and Yellow Wood.
Yellow is amongst us prepared with Dyers Weed, and finished with Broom; some of Melilot, otherwise called Wild Clavers, some Corn or Wild Mary golds, some Turmerick which is very rich in Colour. Verstel Wood is also used as is the Gummi Gutta, for several ends. The Yellow Dye is not very difficult, its Foundation lies in the vegetables, and then the Pot ashes which heightens them. Turmerick Yellow Wood and Gummi Gutta, which some use, don't tinge the Stuffs kindly unless they be first prepared with Allom, and drawn thro' the Dye till it is Yellow enough. Turmerick and Gummi Gutta, are used in the yellowing of Scarlates as in Article xxiv. and xvi. and vii. The Brown of Article xxvi. is not so much in fashion with us, tho' according to the directions of the best Artists, Walnut leaves and shells are Chiefly used in Silk Dying, the Wood and Root not being in use. Soot is also used tho' not alone, vet in mixt Dyes as our Author tells us. The Brown Dye consists mostly in mixtures, either of Red and Black, or Yellow and Black according to the Dyers pleasure. As to Article Xxix. Concerning the preparation of Black, you may find in our first Observation, that previous preparations of woad or Madder Grounds or Boiling in Gall
THESE Five Simple Colours, compose several mixtures of Colours, beginning with lightest Pale, or Faint and ending with the deepest or Darkest.
The Blew mixtures are le BLEU BLANC White Blew, Blew and BLEU NAISSANT bright Blew, BLUE PASLE Pale Blew, BLEU MOURANT faint Blew, BLEU MIGNON, BLEU CELESTE Sky Colour, BLEU REGNE, BLUE TURQUIN TURKISH Blew, BLEU DE Roy, FLEUR DE GUESDE SPANISH Broom Blossom, BLEU PERE ALDEGO and BLEU D' ENFER.
Of the Seven sorts of good Reds, there are only Four, from which we draw mixtures, namely the Madder Red, Crimson, ROUGE DE BOURRE, or Flock Red, a Colour somewhat paler than Orange, enclining to Crimson and the DUTCH Scarlate. The Madder Red produces but very few, but we never draw any mixtures from the FRENCH Scarlate, neither from half Grain nor half Crimson, tho' several mixt Dyes may be produced from the half Crimson.
The mixtures of Madder Red are Flesh Colour, Onion Red with a little slackening of the Dye in the Copper; Flame Colour, Madder Isabella, Tile Colour, deep Madder Colour, GINGEOLIN, JUJUBE Colour being a Yellowish Red, and Madder Red. The Flame and Flesh Colours, as well as the Onion may also be Dyed with Cochineal, but the ISABELLA and the Tile Colours are the much better'd by rincing them in the DUTCH Madder'd Scarlate.
The mixtures of Crimson and Apple Blossom, Flesh Colour, Peach Blossom, Rose Colour, INCARNADIN or ANEMONE Flesh Colour, Rosy Flesh Colour, deep Flesh Colour and Crimson.
The mixtures of the ROUGE DE BOURRE or Pale Orange inclining to Crimson are the same with Crimson, but the Colours it produces are more Rosy or lively according to the well or ill ordering of the Fusion or Suds, or to the long or short duration of the Stuffs in the Allom, but the INCARDINES DE BOURRE or Anemony Flesh Colours are not used to rich Stuffes (because the Dye is not so good as that of Cochineal) but only in stuffes not exceeding Twenty pence the Ell.
The mixtures of DUTCH Scarlate, besides the flaming Flesh Colour, Peach Blossom, Rose, Anemony Flesh Colour, and deep Flesh Colour, which it produces in Common with the Crimson and ROUGE DE BOURRE, by adding Allom to the suds; yield cherry, Nacarate or Pale Orange enclining to Crimson, wild Poppy Colour, Fire Colour and DUTCH Scarlate, which may also be Produced with the BOURRE or Crimson Orange Dye tho' it tinges the Stuffs too much toward the Yellow.
Brasil red which is a bastard Colour, is imitated ; but a much better Dye is prepared from Madder, Cochineal, and the Flock or shearing Dye, for which reason, I shall say nothing of this Mixture, it being forbidden.
The Dyers ought to be left to their own liberty to make their advantage of what remains of the Suds or baths of Good Dyes, that they may use them in Colours which their judgment or Industry may prompt them to.
The Yellow's are the bright Yellow, Lemmon Colour, Pale Yellow, Straw Colour, common Yellow, and Gold Colour.
No mixtures are prepared from the Brown, or Walnut Colour, tho' this simple Colour is used in the Composition of several Compound Colours.
Grey is a mixture of Black from the lightest sort which is White or light Grey, to the deepest which is Black grey, but if the Black be prepared from Galls and Coperas, 'tis not so proper in grey Mixtures, for you can draw very little Grey from thence; but INDIAN Wood is added in stuffs which don't exceed Twenty pence the Ell, and stuffs for linings not exceeding Thirty pence the Ell. The Colours which may be produced are the White or light Grey, Pearl Grey, leaden Grey, Lavender Grey, Beaver Grey, Wild dove Grey, Slate Grey, Fish or Cod Grey, Brown Grey, Twilight or Evening Grey, GRIS DE MORON and Black Grey; but these Colours are better'd by a little mixture of ORSEILLE, or a slack woad Dye but for the stuffs which exceed xx. pence the Ell, or linings which exceed XXX., instead of Woad, Cochineal and Madder ought to be used, to render the Colour better and more certain.
'Tis also to be observed, that in Colours where Galls and Coperas are used, Sumach RODOUL, or Fovic ought to be used, according as the Colour which is design'd and the Industry or Convenience of the Dyer gives opportunity.
Observations on the 3d Part.
In this Third Part is treated of the gradation of Colours; how from the lightest most Pale or faint, they proceed to the deepest or darkest, and that without any remarkable mixture with other dying Ingredients, only, by the quantity of the Colour or longer boiling of it, or by the addition of materials which in themselves afford no tincture, yet occasion a great Alteration in the Dyes. For example, in the Red Madder Dye, if the Madder be corrected with Pot ashes, it produces a genuine bright Red, but if it be augmented according to the weight of the Stuffs, it grows darker and darker, and put into the Liquor more or less Coperas, it yields an agreeable sort of Brown, lighter or deeper, according to the degrees the Artist designs; but mix Coperas alone with the Madder, and it quite alters the Dye to an agreeable Colour betwixt dark Yellowish Red, and Brown, which may be experimented in the small Compass of a Wine Glass ; and the Artist hath an Instruction sufficiently advantageous what Colours may be heightened or improved, without the addition of other Colours, and with very little trouble. Article xl. Informs us that the remains of the Suds, after a piece of Stuff has been Dyed, are still of use; and for one Instance, 'tis to be remembred that the TURKISH Blew Suds (one of the deep blews) after it has been used will Dye the BLEU BLANC or White Blew and the BLEU NAISSANT or bright Blew if the Colour hath not been before too much exhausted, fouled or changed, or at the worst so much PotAshes put in as tinges the Dye Green, and bastardises it: But more especially the remaining Suds of Black is used in our GERMAN Dyeries for the Darkning or deepning all sorts of Dyes.
ALL mixtures of Compound Colours are made by the mixture of two or more Simple Colours, but they diversify their Colours according to the diversity of Drugs, which are used in the Simple Colours, of which these are composed.
From the mixture of Blew and FRENCH Scarlate are produced, COULEUR DE Roy the Kings Colour. COULEUR DE PRINCE, Princes Colour, and AMARANTE or Red Purple: when the Dye is brightened with Turmerick, it becomes of a Pansy Colour, otherwise called the Hearts ease Colour, which is a sort of Violet Brown, and the Violet not brightened ; but this mixture is very seldom used, because of the dearness of the Dye, and because these Colours are more conveniently and cheaper produced with Madder and Cochineal, than with Chermes Berries.
From Blew and Crimson are composed Dove Colour, Purple, AMARANTE or Red Purple Crimson, PANSY, or Violet Brown and Violet Crimson. From the same mixtures (the Stuffs being less boiled in Allom and Tartar) are produced the Silver Grey, Flax Grey, Flax Blossom Colour, Violet Grey and GRIS VINEUX (a sort of Grey enclining to Rose Wine Colour) from these two mixtures also are composed, all sorts of Grey Crimsons, and other Crimsons where the Brown is mixt, as Lavender Grey, Sage Grey, Wild Dove Colour, Leaden Grey, Slate Colour, Brown Bread Colour and TRISTAMIE. 'Tis to be Noted, that all those Colours are called Crimson, which are made with Cochineal.
All Grey and other Crimsons, where Brown, is mixt, may be prepared with Bastard or Wild Cochineal, as well as the Dove, Purple, AMARANTE or Red Purple, PANSY or Violet Brown, and Violet Crimsons, in Stuffs not exceeding XX. pence the Ell ; also all Wools used in the mixture of high prized Stuffs render the price of Dying easy as possible without injuring the goodness of it. A little Madder may also be put into the Suds, in those Dyes which will bear it.
From the mixture of Blew and Madder Red, are composed COLEUR DE Roy, Kings Colour, COLEUR DE PRINCE Princes Colour, and minime or deep Tawny, as well as Tawny, Amarantus Colour or red Purple, and dry Rose Colour, tho' the three last are much better prepared with half Crimson. The minime or deep Tawny often wants soot or something to deepen the Brown; all Greys are composed of Madder, which are finish'd with Walnut tree root, leaves, &c. As Lavender Grey, Wild pidgeon, GRIS DE MOROU, Brown Grey, Twilight Grey, and other Greys of that mixture, together with brown Bread Colour, TRISTAMIE, COLEUR D' ALYCE, Claver or Melilot colour, BREDA Grey, and other sorts of Colours, which are composed of Blew Red Madder and Brown.
From the fixture of Blew and half grain, are composed the Velvet Colour, Amaranthus, i.e.,red Purple, the Tawny, and dry rose Colour, but this mixture is not much in use, because of the dearness of the Chermes Berries, which is the principal Ingredient in one of these Colours.
From the mixture of Blew and half Crimson is composed the Amaranthus or red Colour Purple, Tawny, dry Rose, Pansie or violet Brown and Velvet Colour; in the two last less Madder ought to be used than Cochineal because the Pansie and Velvet Colour must be redder than the others. From this mixture you may also produce the Grey Brown and the Evening Grey.
From the mixture of the Blew and the Pale Orange, or Flock Colour, are produced the same Colours, as with Crimson; but the use of it ought to be forbid except in Dove Colour, Purple, Pansie, Violet, Silver Grey, Flax Grey, Flax blossom Colour and Violet Grey, in stuffs not exceeding 20 pence the Ell: if the Colours encline too much to the red, a little Allom and a weak Madder ground may be added.
A mixture of Blew and DUTCH Scarlate is very seldom used, as well because of the high price of the Colours, as that the Colours of this mixture are more easily produced with Madder and Crimson.
There are several compound Colours, which are made of several mixtures of simple Colours; but they are produced finer, better, more conveniently and cheaper, from one Ingredient alone than several, as the Art and Industry of the Dyer will inform him in the disposing and use of it.
The mixture of Blew and Yellow yield, the Yellow Green, Gay Light Green, Grass Green, Laurel Green, MALAQUEN Green, Brown Green, and Dark Green: it affords also Sea Green, CELADON Green, a Green mixt with White or Willow Green, Parrot Green, Colewort Green, but these last require less boiling than the former. The Willow Green and the Brimstone Colours may be made with Verdigrease, a Drug made in FRANCE, Copper filings, and the Stems and Stones of Grapes; the best is made at MONTPELLIER in LANGUEDOC.
From the mixtures of Blew and Brown alone, no Colour is ever made; but several are produced from the mixture of Blew and Brown, with the Addition of Cochineal and Madder Red.
Nor are any Colours composed of the mixtures, of Blew and Gray, without the Addition of some other Colour, as Brown or Red.
FRENCH Scarlate and Yellow are never used to produce Gold Colour, Morning dawning Yellow, Marigold Colour, Orange, Pale Orange, Pomgranate Blossom, Wild or Corn Poppy Colour or Fire Colour, because these Colours are more conveniently and cheaper prepared with Yellow, and Madder Red or the Flock Red. i.e., Pale Orange; But as those Colours which are prepared from Flocks or shreds, require a SPANISH Broom Yellow, so the Gold Colour, Day dawn Colour, and Madder'd Orange requires the SPANISH Broom Yellow with a little Turmerick in the Maddering, as the Madder'd NACARRET or Pale Orange requires Turmerick alone. ISABELLA and Buff Colours are also prepared a little SPANISH Broom Madder or Flocks.
Nor any Dyes made of the mixture of Crimson or Cochineal Red with half Grain, nor of half Crimson with Yellow, tho' Turmerick agrees very well with Cochineal and Chermes Berries; The mixture of Flock Red, and Madder Red being Sufficient, and more convenient to prepare all sorts of mixtures of Colours, which are composed of Red and Yellow.
Tho' tis said that several mixtures of Colours are never made, it does not follow, but they may be made, and that is only said to show that they re unusual, or that they are finer or cheaper or easier done with one Simple Colour, than with the addition of others ; But the experienc'd dyer knows how to use the Good Drugs, which are permitted, and to turn the remains of his Suds (after Dying some Colour) to advantage in the mixtures of Colours, where he thinks it Proper, that liberty be entirely left him, as the Ill use of it for the bastardising of Colours ought to be absolutely forbidden.
A mixture is made of Bastard Colours, with brasil Red and Turmerick or SPANISH Broom Yellow, which ought to be absolutely forbidden; This mixture of compound Colours being made very well and finer with the Flock Colour.
From the mixture of Red unboiled, and Brown is produced Cinamon Colour, Chestnut Colour, Musk and Bearskin Colours. Musk Colour requires a rebate in the Dye with SPANISH Broom, and the Bearskin with SPANISH Broom or Browning. COULEUR DE Roy (or Kings Colour) may also be very well made with Madder Red, and the Brown prepared from several parts of Walnut Tree, but instead of Madder, the Dyer of the Lesser or slighter Dyes may use ORSEILLE for the first sort of Colours, and only for the Stuffs which don't exceed xxx pence the ElI; but for the Kings Colour, it must be Madder'd to a good Dye.
From the mixture of Yellow and Brown, are produced all the mixtures of Phillamort, and Hair Colour, which are finer prepared with Soot, than the several Parts of Walnut Tree, especially if the Soot be used at the Latter end of a Maddering that is mixt with Turmerick.
No mixtures is made of Yellow with Black, SPANISH Broom serving only to abate the Redness of some Grey Colours, and to encline others to the Green, as for instance Water Grey, Green Grey, Gooseturd Green and the like Colours.
All Olive Colours from the Brownest to the brightest, are only Greens rebated, or corrected with Walnut tree, Yellow Wood or Soot.
Having shewed the manner of preparing Sage Grey, Wild Dove Grey, Slate Colour, Brown Bread Colour, TRISTAMIE, C0LEUR D' ALYSE or Claver Colour, Leaden Grey, GRIS DE MOROU, Brown Grey and Twilight Grey, with Woad, Cochineal or Madder, and the Parts of Walnut Tree; and since the greatest part of the Colours composed of three or four Simple Colours may be several ways very well prepared with several sorts of Drugs, The Dyers ought to be left to their liberty, to use and finish their Dyes according to their convenience and knowledge; But it ought to be strictly prohibited that the drugs of the slighter or lesser Dyes be used in the greater or good Dyes, and that no stuffs be Dyed with the lesser Dye, which ought to be Dyed with the greater and good Dye.
Observations on the fourth Part.
The former part treated of the practice of Dying Simple Colours, and heightning the Dyes, so this informs us of the product of the mixtures of Simple Colours. Article xlvii. from the mixture of Blew and Chermes Berries Dyes arises a Purple, if the Blew ground be very light; also according to Masters, the Cochineal and Tartar mixed with Violet will produce the same effect. Article xlvi. and Article xlvii. inform us that from the mixture of Blew and Crimson, all sorts of Greys are produced, if the Stuffs be a little Allomed, but we ought to know that Allom being an acid Salt, and Tartar a sort of Coagulated Vinegar, Crimson and all soft or nice Colours are hereby inclined toward a light bright Yellowish Red, wherefore the less of these ingredients is used, the blewer and darker will the Dye be, the same may be said of Grey Purples and Violets but it is to be observed that some add the Brown as a third in the mixture corrected with Turmerick, Article xlix. we ought to be told that Tauny is sometimes Dyed with Black tho' upon blew it is best ; but in the following receipts you have both Ways tho' the latter is the best.
To Dye Tawny.
DYE the Stuffs first Madder Red, then take the Fire Colour Dye, and put in one part Black therein, and let them heat again; then Work the Stuffs in it so long till it is light or dark according to your desire.
Another way to Dye Tawny.
LET the Stuffs first be Dyed a light Blew for light Tawny, and dark Blew for deep Tawny, then being Allom'd cool'd and clean'd they must be rinced through Madder Suds, till they are light or dark as you would have them. The Author in Article lxiii. directs to make Philemort and Hair Colours by mixing Yellow and Walnut tree brown: Now the like or the same Colour is produced with Yellow and Black, as well as by reheating a lighter Red Colour in Madder Suds, or in Brasil Wood, and tis also to be observed that in Article Ix. 'tis hinted that the same Colour may be produced several Ways, tho' some are better, more lasting and beauteous than the other, and that the experienced Artist ought to determine which is best. Also in this Article he treats of the use of the remaining Suds as in Article xl. the Workman may use that to the hightening the same Colours, or throwing out others, or attempting new ones according to Discretion. To conclude our observations on this Article, 'tis proper to hint that all mixtures of Dyes look better upon the Stuffs than in the Copper, and that a Colour is very much sett off by mixture with others. Article lxii. The Author hints, That Stuffs not exceeding 20d. the Ell, are Dyed in Madder Suds, in the Great Dyery, and then the Black Dyer tinges it with his Black mixture, which is clearly forbidden in Article lxvi.
'Tis so necessary to divide the Art of Dying into two parts, viz., the great or good Dye, and the lesser and slight, and to establish a Law that the Dyers of the great Dye, should not have it in their power to use or keep in their Houses, INDIAN Wood or ORSEILE, nor to finish the Blacks they begun, any more than the Dyers of lesser Dyes should be permitted to Gall or Black them without a ground of Woad alone, or Woad and Madder; or having liberty to use INDIAN Wood and ORSEILE for the diminishing all sorts of blacks, and for grey's, and Walnut browns, in Stuffs not exceeding 20 pence the Ell, and those design'd for linings not exceeding 30 pence the Ell, should be allowed to use them in Stuffs of higher price; that the Omission of such a division would render it impossible to arrive at the perfection of Dying, or to have the greatest part of the Colours without falsification, either by want of the necessary ground or the use of ORSEILE or INDIAN wood in stuffes and in Dyes, wherein these Colours can bastardise the Dye. It being not sufficient only to forbid bastard Dyes, but to retrench the Dyers from having so much as the Power or opportunity to bastardise them.
'Tis impossible to give the last perfection to black Dyes, without INDIAN Wood, especially in Wools for mixture, or render the price of Dying slight stuffs and coarse Wools, reasonable, without using it in the room of Woad, Madder or Cochineal grounds; nor can the slighter stuffs afford even INDIAN or ORSEILLE in Greys and Walnut Colours, so that if the same Dyer should Dye both sorts, or the Art being parted it should be permitted for the Dyer of the great Dye, to finish what he had begun, 'tis not impossible but the Dyers might have an Opportunity to falsify the Blews with INDIAN Wood and ORSEILE, or use them in Grey's or Walnut tree Colours in Stuffs of value, which will by this means be deprived of their necessary good ground; or which is worse they will finish their blacks, as tis very easy for them to do, with Galls, Sumach, and Copperas without ever giving it the Woad, or Madder Ground which is absolutely necessary to produce a good Dye.
There is no better way to hinder the falsification of Dyes, than after the Dyer of the good Dye hath given Stuffs the necessary ground of Woad, Madder and Cochineal, to oblige the Dyer of the lesser Dye to tinge them with several parts of Walnut S.A. tree Gall them, tinge them to black and brown or grey, it being no less necessary to sort the Colours according to the desired mixture, than to give the Stuff a fine and beautiful Dye, neither of which can without great difficulty be done, if the Dye is begun, pursued and ended by one Dyer. We need not be so very strict in the Dyes which should pass from the Dyers of the greater to the Dyers of the lesser dye, the black only excepted, which is the most important, and wants to be sorted to no mixture, but is liable to the most frauds, which are most difficult to discover, for the falsification of other Colours being more visible may be easier discovered and prevented by the leaden Marks and Seals, &c. which ought strictly to be observed; of which more afterward.
As this division will make more Master Dyers, so will it also increase the Number of Inspectors; for the Dyers of the lesser Dye will be obliged to look after the Grounds of the greater Dyers, and the latter will also be obliged to see that the other finish the Blacks well after they have given them a good Ground; and each being obliged to put his Lead or Mark, there is little likelyhood that one will be willing to bear the Blame for the others Faults, or make themselves liable to answer for them: Nor can they have a good Understanding amongst so many visible Marks and inspectors which will expose their contraventions, besides the Care the Merchants will in all probability take; they also having a Power of visiting which enables them to look after both sorts of Dyers.
To obtain the necessary Advantage of this Division, and that every Dyer may know what Stuffs and Colours, and with what Drugs it shall be lawful for him to Dye, without encroaching upon one another, 'tis necessary that the greater Dyers should dye all sorts of spun Wool, or Wool to be spun, and all sorts of Woolen Stuffes of what goodness soever, of the following Colours, viz., all sorts of good Blews, Reds and Yellows, from the lightest to the deepest Dye, as well as all sorts of mixtures of Colours which proceed from two or three of these simple Colours, Blew, Red and Yellow, in the manner before specified.
The Dyers of the great Dye may also dye the Greys and Walnut Tree Dyes of all Stuffes exceeding twenty pence the Ell, and Stuffes for Linings exceeding thirty pence the Ell, with the Woad, Madder or Cochineal ground, in Dyes where it is necessary, as wild Dove, Grey, Slate Colour, leaden Grey, brown Bread Colour, TRISTAMIE, COULEUR D' ALYCE, Brown grey and the like; and for the justification of themselves, they ought to be obliged to leave at each end of the piece of Stuff a little Rose of every sort of Ground they have given it in the dying it; and if it be a Colour begun and ended without any precedent Ground, the Rose or mark ought to remain White.
The Dyers of the great Dye may also Woad and Madder all Stuffes of high Prices, and only Woad the Stuffes of midling or lower Prices conformable to the CLXXVIII. Article and according to this Instruction, before the lesser Dyers should be permitted to Gall them or Dye them Black.
The Dyers of the lesser Dye may Dye all sorts of low priced Wool, spun or to be spun, Stuffes not exceeding twenty pence the Ell, Linnen Stuffes not exceeding thirty pence the Ell; all sorts of Walnut Tree and Grey Dyes, as Deer Colour, Cinamon Colour, COULEUR D' ALYCE, brown Bread Colour, TRISTAMIE, Musk and Cheesecake Colours, Minim Brown or deep Tawny; White Grey, Pearl Grey, Mouse Grey, Beavor Grey, Breda Grey, Water Grey, Wild Dove Grey, Slate Colour, Lead Grey, Bear skin Grey, GRIS DE MOROU, and other such like Colours, which may be begun and ended without any Ground, Red or rebate of Woad, Madder or Cochineal: And you may use for these instead of Woad, Madder or Cochineal, INDIAN Wood or Orseille, for those sorts of Dyes and for Stuffes, Wooll &c. which exceed not the Price set in this Article, and without permitting them to leave any Rose mark.
The Dyers of the lesser Dye may also Dye low priced Wools and Stuffes, not exceeding twenty pence the Ell, in COULEUR DE SYLOCE Peach Blossom Colour, Flax Grey, Wine Colour, and all low mixtures which are prepared with Orseille alone, without medling with mixtures deeper than Velvet Colour, nor adding any other Ingredients to produce the mixture of Violet, Amarantus, Tawny, dry Rose, SURBRUN or other the like, and withall they are not permitted to leave any Rose mark upon the Stuffes.
And because bastard Cochineal may happen to be very dear, and the Good Dyers may sometimes be without Flocks, and that the Rebate or little tincture of Woad, which the Dyers may give to Tawny, Amarantus, or dry Rose Colours, in the Copper, may not sufficiently encline to Red. To sort this mixture, 'tis necessary in this Case that the lesser Dyers should finish the Violet Dyes in coarse spun Wool, serving to the making of BERGAMO or coarse Tapestries, or other low priced Stuffs, with Orseille, after the great Dyer hath given them a sufficient ground of Woad; as well as he might give a Luster to the Tawnies, dry Rose and Amarantus Colours, after the great Dyer hath sufficiently Woaded and Maddered them; to testify which he should be obliged to leave his Rose Marks, which the lesser Dyer should be obliged to preserve, as well as the Marks of Woading in Violets, and in both Cases both are to add their own Mark, that the two Leads may be a satisfactory justification that the Stuffes have passed thro' both Dyes, but they ought to be forbid the use of Orseille in Wools for mixture of the same Colours, or in Stuffes exceeding twenty or thirty pence the Ell as above, or in any other Colours of the Good Dye, but Violets, Tawnies, Amarantus, and other Colours of these two mixtures as in form above order'd.
The Dyers of the lesser Dye may also Dye all sorts of browning or repassing thro' the Dye in mixt Grey, or coarse Woolen Manufactures, and they may herein use for browning Galls, Orseille and Indian Wood, but they must not augment the Dye therewith above one fourth part, and for their justification therein, they must leave a little Rose, of the same Colour the Stuffes were before in the end of the piece; nor ought they to brown or deepen the said place, that if they have more augmented the Dye than necessary, it may be discovered by a little boiling of a Pattern taken from that Rose. The Dyers of the great Dye may also Dye browner, or repass thro' the great Dye but with the Baths of Cochineal and Madder alone, without any mixture of Dying Ingredients.
The Dyers of the lesser Dye may also Dye all Sorts of Woollen Manufactures of what fineness soever, after they have been Woaded and Madder'd, or Woaded alone, (conformable to the 178 Article) by the great Dyers, but they ought not to Gall or black any Woollen Manufactures, without either the Woad ground alone, or the Woad and Madder ground, nor without the Rose and other Marks as before specified, and shall afterwards be declared.
The Dyers of the lesser Dye may also Dye and Re dye all old Cloaths or Worn Stuffes, Black of all sorts, Walnut Browns, Greys, Browns; tho' if the Stuffes are of Value and have not been much worn, they are obliged to give them the ground necessary to the good Dye; but for all other Colours they, as well as new Stuffes for Furniture and Houses, ought to be Dyed by the great Dyers with the same ground as other Stuffes, without their being obliged to put their Mark, if they alone Dye, the Colour itself being sufficient indication of its own Goodness. But in Black the great Dyer, after having given them the necessary ground, is obliged to set his Mark, and cause the lesser Dyer to finish them, and put his leaden Mark also just by the others, to the end that the owners of the Stuffes may keep the Marks, in order to have his remedy against the great Dyer to whom he intrusted his Stuff in Case it be ill dyed; and he against the lesser Dyer, if the Fault be in the Black which he hath given it.
It is necessary to prohibit both sorts of Dyers to encroach one upon the other, nor is it proper for the great Dyers to keep the Drugs in their Houses which are used in the lesser Dyes, to Dye the lesser Dyes or Gall Stuffes, or finish the Blacks; any more than it is reasonable that the lesser Dyers should keep in their Houses the Drugs of the greater Dye, or Dye any Stuffes or Colours which belong to it, or finish the Blacks, unless they are Woaded, or Woaded and Maddered by the great Dyers. It ought here to be lawful for all Persons who have Stuffes under twenty pence the Ell, old Cloaths or worn Stuffes, to send them to the great Dyer to have the Ground of the good Dye, but if they wou'd have them dyed Black or Re dyed, they ought to be finished wholly by the lesser Dyer.
'Tis necessary to prohibit all Merchants from giving Stuffes exceeding twenty pence the Ell, or Lining Stuffes exceeding thirty pence the Ell, Which they have bought White, to the lesser dyers to be dyed; nor ought they to be suffered any Stuffes to be dyed Black without the necessary Grounds of Woad, or Woad and Madder ; they ought also to be forbidden to order their Manufactures to be dyed false Colours, or holding any correspondence with or assisting the Dyers to that end, or to cause them to use any forbidden Drugs.
'Tis necessary in Towns where there is but one Dyer, that he should dye the greater as well as the lesser Dye if he knows how; still observing the Rules and Rose Marks, and putting his leaden mark of the great Dye and to Stuffes and Colours of the great Dye, and his leaden mark of the lesser dye to Stuffes and Colours of the lesser, and the marks of both where they have participated of both; but where he is not skilful enough in his Art, he ought only to dye the lesser Dye and use that mark only.
'Tis necessary in Towns where there is only one of the greater Dyers, that a lesser Dyer shou'd also be placed there, that one may look after and be responsible for the other; otherwise no perfection in the Art of great Dying is to be expected.
The Art of great or good Dye being very difficult to learn, requires a long experience to arrive at any perfection in it; for which Reason 'tis necessary, that those who are design'd for Masters in it, should be at least four Years Apprentices to a Master of the great Dye; and that before he be admitted a Master himself, he produce his Indenture, and Witness that he hath not only serv'd his time out, but that he also at least work'd four more years with him, or some other Master, after which he may demand leave to shew his Master piece or Specimen of ability, which if it be well performed, he ought to be admitted a Master Dyer of the great Dye, but if it is not approved he ought to be sent back to learn, for so long time as is necessary to inform him in these things wherein he is deficient.
Tho' the Art of using Woad is the most difficult and necessary Part of Dying, so before any one can be allowed to Work as a Master, he ought to prepare the Madder Red Dye, the Crimson Violet, the Green, Brown Tawny, or Woad and Madder Black, which are four Dyes, which 'tis absolutely necessary a Master of the great Dye should be perfect in, for which Reason those who would be Masters, ought (besides the working at the Copper for Six Days) to be obliged to Dye a Piece of Stuff, Madder Red one Crimson Violet, one Green and one Woad or Madder'd Black Brown, after which they ought to be admitted Masters, Members of their Company, and may in their turn expect to become Wardens, &c. of their Company, and their Widows and Children are to enjoy all the honours and Privileges of the Art of great Dying. But the Sons of Masters of great Dye, ought to be obliged to no more than two years Apprentisage, and to be a journeyman with their Father or some other Master, for two Years more, and to be obliged perform, but two of the four Proof Pieces, and have their option of those too, and to Work at the Copper but three days: If a journey man Marrys a Masters daughter, he ought in right of his Marriage, to enjoy the same Privileges as a Dyers Son, still taking it for granted that the Father of the Son or Daughter has himself perform'd his proof piece, and not otherwise.
There being no proof or Master piece established for the lesser Dyers, and it being necessary that those who would be admitted Masters, should be knowing and experienced in their Art, 'tis necessary for the future that they should serve an Apprenticage of four Years, continuing with a Master of the great and good or lesser Dye, and work journey work under a Master of the lesser Dye for three Years; after which being desirous to be admitted Master and Member of the Company, they ought to dye four pieces, viz., two of Cloath which they ought to dye Black, one after the great dyer has Woaded it, and the other after he has Woaded and Madder'd it, and to Dye two pieces of Stuffes, not exceeding the price of twenty pence the Ell, one Beavor Grey, and the other brown Bread Colour, without any participation of the great Dye; which done, and having taken the necessary Oaths, he ought to be admitted Master and registered in the Company of lesser Dyers, and to enjoy all Privileges and Advantages of that Art, as ought also his Widow and Children. The Sons of Masters are obliged only to two Years Apprentisage, and to be journey Men two Years with their Fathers or some other Masters, and they should be obliged to Dye but one piece Black and a slight piece of Stuff, and to have their Option; the Journey Men marrying their Master's Daughters to enjoy the same Advantage.
'Tis also necessary if Apprentices or Journey Men of the great or lesser Dye, are convicted of having robb'd their Masters, that they be for ever incapable of being admitted Master, and their Sentence to be written in the register of the Company to have recourse to upon all occasions; and that the Apprentices or Journey Men do not Dye in their own or Master's Houses for their own Profit upon pain of exemplary punishment.
'Tis also necessary that all Persons whatsoever besides Master Dyers, should strictly be forbidden the Dying or Re dying all sorts of Woollen Manufactures whatsoever; except Hat makers which may Dye their own Hats, and Clothiers their Wool for mixture, with the several parts of Walnut Tree only, being forbid to keep Galls, Coperas or other dying Ingredients in their Houses, or dye any other Wools for mixture, or any Stuffes at all.
THE Wool, Cruels, &c. used in the finest luster'd Tapestries, and in Needle Tapestries wrought on Canvas, ought to be dyed with the good Dye in the same manner as Stuffes; the perfection of dying them, consisting as well in the proper mixture of the Dyes, and preventing the felting and tangling of the Cruels, &c. as in the beauty and goodness of the Dyes, and it being very difficult, if not impossible, to sort the Dyes to their mixtures, or to hinder the felting and entangling the Wools if they pass through two several Dyers Hands.
It is therefore necessary that the Dyers of those sorts of Woolls, Cruels, Worstead, &c. should Dye both the greater and lesser Dye, but to the end that their mixtures of Colours may be the better sorted, they ought to be strictly forbidden the use of INDIAN Wood or Orseille, or the dying of any sorts of Manufactures, or any Wool, Cruel, &c. but what is design'd for these ends. The Wool, Worstead, &c., used in the making of BERGAMOS in the coarse Tapistry, being coarser, and the mixture of the Dye not being so difficult ought to be dyed by the greater and lesser Dyers, according to the fineness or make of the Worsteads, &c. used in the said BERGAMOS.
The Dyers of Wools, Worstead, &c. for the fine Tapistries, not having Colour enough to make a boiling in the Copper, may nevertheless Dye their Cruels, &c. at the greater or lesser Dyers, and sort their mixtures themselves, paying the Dyer as they can agree with him without his being responsible for the goodness of the Dye or sorting of the mixtures, which ought to be govern'd by the Tapistry Cruel Dyers, according to the Rules and Penalties which they are liable to.
The Tapistry Dyers may also (where there are no other Dyers) dye all sorts of Wool and Woollen Manufactures, observing the Rose and Lead Marks according to the Rules mention'd; but that they may not abuse this Liberty, the Commissaries and judges of the Police ought to be enjoyned to enquire whether the Tapistry Dyer makes or Dyes Stuffes enough to employ a dyer; and if there are a sufficient quantity of Masters or journey Men fit to be Masters; and to order the most intelligent in the mixture of Dyes for Cruel, Worstead, &c. for Tapistry to that Work, and the most knowing in the great and lesser dye to that work, according to the Capacities or number of Masters to be found, or which they please to appoint in these places.
The Corporation of Dyers at ROUAN having been always divided into three different functions viz. in Woaders, Madderers and Blackers or dyers of Black, each of which is entirely ignorant of the others manner of Dying, it is to be fear'd if they were in a hurry obliged to submit to the present Rule, that not knowing how to prepare the dyes which might be demanded of them, the Art of Dying and Commerce might receive a very great damage thereby.
To avoid which Inconvenience, it would be necessary to let those which are already set up, continue in their old way, provided they observe the Rules of this Instruction, as well for the good Colours as the Rose or lead Marks, because the due observance thereof will prevent any inconveniencies, the Madderer being obliged to answer or the Woaders Dye as the blacker is to answer or the dyes of both the other.
But to the end that this Custom may by degrees wear out, without any prejudice to the Art of good Dying, and that an Uniformity may be established throughout the Realm, a Master Woader and Master Madderer, if they please, should so enter into Partnership in the same House, to Dye jointly the greater Dye, as prescribed in this Instruction ; and after having so continued the space of four Years, they should also be at Liberty to separate, and each of them to set up for the great Dye and to enjoy themselves, their Widows and Children, the Benefits and Advantages of Masters thereof, or return to the former profession at Pleasure, but should be obliged to declare before the judges of Manufactures, which they choose.
Tho' if at present any Master Madderers are able to Woad, or Woaders able to Madder, it would not be in the least inconvenient to accelerate the uniformity by admitting them Masters of the greater Dye and present them with all its Privilege and Advantages without their being obliged to enter into partnerships : but they ought to be very well examined before the judges of Manufactures, to the end that this insufficiency may occasion no prejudice to the Art of Dying or themselves And care ought also to be taken that no Woader be admitted without admitting a Madderer, at the same time, to prevent the Woaders being more able to Madder and Cochineal, than the Madderers would be to Woad, and consequently drawing all their work from them. The same care ought to be taken of Widows.
For the Master Blackers of Rouen, having versed themselves in the lesser Dye, 'twould be very easy for them to exercise it as prescribed in this Instruction, because there is very little difference between one and the other.
If it is found necessary to permit any other Custom to continue as it is, for the good of the respective Towns, where it is in use, or to comply with the weakness of the Master, and tend to the Advantage of the Provinces where it is, it ought as much as is possible to be squared according to the model of this Instruction, in the great or lesser Dye, to bring the Dyers into the best way, by the softest methods.
To avoid the Mischiefs which may arise by an Understanding betwixt the greater and lesser Dyer, and betwixt the latter, and the Merchant, to fall the Price of Dying by putting them to the lesser Dyer, without their being grounded by the greater Dyer; the lesser Dyer ought to be absolutely restrained from receiving any Stuffs above 20 pence the Ell, or Lining Stuffs above Thirty Pence the Ell, or any to Dye Black, without the the great Dyer hath given them the necessary Ground, or without his Rose and Lead Mark at one, or at both ends, if the Piece be double.
The Lead or Mark of every Dyer is so necessary to be put at the end of every piece of Stuff, that it is only the way to detect any fraud in the Dye, and the guilty Person, in order to bring him to condign Punishment; But to the end that the Leaden Marks may be clearly distinguishable, and at first sight discover whether the Stuffs be Dyed by the greater or lesser Dyer, or by both; 'tis necessary that every greater Dyer shou'd have a little Anvil engraven round the Name of the Place, and in the middle the Words BON TEINT, i.e., good Dye, in Capital Letters and a Stamp with his Name Graven on it in Capitals also, so that striking the Lead with the Stamp upon the Anvil he may imprint it as above on both sides.
The lesser Dyer shou'd also have the same sort of Stamps and Anvils with this difference only, that in the Place of BON TEINT, good Dye, shou'd be engraven PETIT TEINT, lesser Dye, all in Capitals as the other.
Every Dyer ought to be obliged to put his Leaden Mark at one end of every Piece of Stuff which he Dyes; and if the Piece be double, at both ends: if the piece be Dyed of both Dyes, each Dyer ought to put his Leaden Mark; the Mark of the lesser Dye being put next to but a little lower than the greater.
Stuffs which have past the last Hand of the Dyer, either of the great or lesser Dye, alone or both : before the Merchant receives them; ought to pass the Views of the Court which shou'd be appointed for this end, and there Visited by the Drapers Officers in conjunction with the Sworn Dyer, who is to assist them; and if they are found to be well Dyed and Rose and Lead Marked, they should be Marked with the Lead Mark of the Court, Engraven with the Word TEINTURE, i.e., Dying; with the name of the Town the last Lead being necessary to approve and confirm the others.
If any Piece of ill Stuff be found Ill Dyed or wrong Rose or Lead Mark'd; not only the Stuff and Dyer shou'd be seized and fined, but the Possessor of it, whether the lesser Dyer, for finishing it without the necessary Ground, or the Merchants for receiving it, or sending it to the Shearer or Callender without the Mark of the Court, nay even the Callender, ought to be fined for receiving it.
And that the Marks may be the better known, they should not be put upon the Stuffs till after they have received the last Hand of each Dyer, first of the great Dyer for Black, when they are deliver'd to the lesser Dyer; and when the lesser Dyer hath finished them he is to deliver them to the Court to pass search, and be Marked; and if the Marks are not sufficiently clear, they may be Stampt again to render them plainer.
And to prevent any Persons slipping another Piece in the Place of that, which is Seized, the Officers of the Drapery or Sworn Dyer, and others as well Merchants as Dyers belonging to the Court, should be empowered to affix their Mark or Seal with Wax or Lead, and to draw up an Indictment immediately in order to lay it before the judges of Manufactures, where for a more ample Verification, as well the mention'd Officers of the Draperie as the Sworn Dyers, and the defendant ought to be present or duely summoned to give satisfaction to the judges, that the piece is the same, and to examine the boiling or Dye, whether it be duely prepared with the necessary Drugs.
And to break all the Measures which shall be taken for the bastardising of good Dyes, 'tis necessary to enjoyn all Dyers of the good Dye upon forfeiture of the Price of their Dye given to the Stuffs, to leave one or two little Rose Marks at each end of the piece, one of the Blew and the other of the Madder Red which they have given to the Stuffs; And the lesser Dyer should be obliged to leave another Rose mark in the middle, or at the other side of each end of the Rose, if there be but one to justify its Colour before it was Galled and Blacked.
The great Dyers ought to be obliged to do the same in all Dyes, which they finish themselves without the assistance of the lesser Dye, leaving little Roses or Rose Marks, viz., in Greens, one of the Yellow, and another of the Blew, in which they have Dyed it; in PHILLAMORTS one of Yellow and the other of Brown in Crimsons, one of the Blew, and the other of the Cochineal Red; in Tawnyes or Amarantes, one of Woad and another of Madder, or the half Crimson Dyes, with which they have tinged it; and so of the rest.
As 'tis necessary to leave little Roses or Rose Marks of every Dye us'd, in all Stuffs which have received a Compound Dye, 'tis also necessary to leave a little White Rose in all simple Dyes, as Blew, Red, Yellow, as well as in Browns and Greys in Stuffs exceeding xx. Pence the Ell, and Lining Stuffs exceeding xxx. Pence the Ell; because these Stuffs ought, besides the Leaden Mark of the Dyer, to have the little Rose or Rose Marks which should be the general Mark of good Dying, whether it hath been Dyed by one or both Dyers according to the difference of the Mysteries of the great or lesser Dying.
As the little Roses at one or both ends of the Stuffs, ought to be the general Marks of good or great Dying, the want of them in a Dyed Stuff ought to be an infallible sign of the lesser Dye; wherefore it is necessary strictly to forbid all Dyers of the lesser Dye, to leave any Rose Marks in their Greys, Walnut Tree Dyes, in low Prized Stuffs, nor in any Stuffs or Colours which they begin, and finish without participation of the good Dye, except in their Browning alone to justifie what Colour the Stuff was before, and the augmentation of Dye they have given it, to the end that the Publick may not be cheated, and may be inform'd, by the sole inspection of the Marks and Roses, of the difference betwixt the great and lesser Dye.
The Dyers of the lesser Dye ought nevertheless to be enjoyned to preserve the Rose Marks which the great Dyers shall leave upon the Stuffs, in the same Colours, in their participation, of both the Dyes, and leave another in the Colour the Stuff was before it was Galled, Black'd, or ORSEIL'D, as is before Specified in this instruction; to the end that the Publick may know by the Roses and the two Marks, the Colours which the two Dyes have given it.
But as there be some Merchants or Dyers who may be Ignorant, or at least pretend to be so, of the grounds of Woad matter or Cochineal necessary to a good Dye, and by this means find an excuse for retrenching a Part of the Dye, 'tis necessary that besides 16 Patterns of Colours mentioned in the Fourth Article of the Rule, others should be also Dyed, which shou'd serve as Patterns for all sorts of grounds, the one half whereof to remain in the Court of Draper, and the other in the Court of the Dyers of the good Dye, as well to have recourse to in the search, whether the grounds given be conformable to these Patterns, as to compare them with the Rose Marks, or that they may be enabled to lend a Pattern to all the Dyers, to regulate themselves in the same ground, or to put into the boiling together with the Patterns of the ground, which you wou'd justify, or which you would examine the falshood of.
Here the German Author makes his Annotations on the Fifth and Sixth Books, but they consisting only of repetitions of the Law of Dying abovementioned, and fearing that Me English Reader may be tired, I rather chose to omit them, than trespass father upon his Patience.
TO the end that no Person may be Ignorant of the Drugs which are allowed, and which are forbidden particularly in the greater or lesser Dye, or in common to both, they ought to be inform'd.
That the Drugs which in themselves afford no Colour but are used to dispose the Stuffs to attract the Colour of the Dying ingredients, or to render the Colour more Beautiful and certain, ought all to be allowed to the Dyer of the great Dye only, because the use of them cannot be injurious to Colours of the great Dye, but in the lesser Dye they have a clean contrary effect and serve only to spoil the Dye.
As Dyers of the great Dye may severally use different Non dying ingredients to produce the effect, one choosing one way and another a different; so they ought to be allowed to keep in their Houses all materials of this Nature useful in Dying, and to use them which way they think necessary.
Non dying Drugs in the good Dye, are Allom, Tartar, Arsenic, Realgar, or the Arsenic the Gold smiths use, Salt peter, Nitre, Sal Gemma, Sal Armoniac, Common Salt, Mineral Salt, Salt or Christal of Tatrar, Argaric, Spirit of Wine, Urine, Tin, Bran, Pease and Wheat flower, Starch, Lime, common Ashes, Pot-Ashes and Tartar Ashes.
The Dying Drugs which ought to be used by great Dyers only, are AURAGCEIS and ALBIGIOS Woad, Slight Woad, Indigo, Cochineal, MESLEQUE and PESQUALLE or the right best sort of high prized Stuffs and Wild or Bastard Cochineal for slight Stuffs, and Wools for mixtures, Madder, BOURRE or Goats Hair, Turmerick, SPANISH Broom, SARRETTE, GENISTROLLE and Soot, for Philamorts, Hair Colours and Olives only.
The Lesser Dyers ought to be restrained from keeping in their Houses, Shops, or Ware-houses any of the said Ingredients, and not permitted to use any of them. SPANISH Brown only excepted in the softning of Blacks, and the rebates of Greys.
The Drugs which ought to be common to Dyers of the greater and lesser Dyes, are those which afford very little Colour, or else tinge Brown as the Root, Bark, Leaves of the Walnut-tree, and the Nut-shells; and GARUOILLE, Galls, Sumach, Rodoul and Coperas: but the great Dyers ought to be allowed but very small quantities of the latter four Ingredients, and only as much as may be necessary for a light Browning, which it is allowable for them to give to Dyes, in which it is difficult to sort their mixtures without an Allowance to diminish their necessary Ground which ought always to be as strong as their Patterns.
Besides the Ingredients allowed in common to both Dyes, the lesser Dyers may have the use in the lesser Dye, Orseille, INDIAN Wood and Verdigrease, according to this Instruction ; but use ought absolutely to be forbidden the great Dyers, to use or keep them in their Houses, Shops Warehouses.
The Drugs which ought to be absolutely forbidden, to both sorts of Dyers as well as of the greater as lesser Dye, are Brasil Wood, ROCOURT, bastard Saffron, Turnsole, ANCHUSA or GROMEL, filings of Iron or Copper, Cutlers and other Grinders dust, RODOUL and Sumach, which have been used in the Dying Turky or other leathers, because all these Bastardize the Colour, harden the Wools and spoil the Stuff, Fustel, Yellow-Wood TRENTENEL, MALHERBE, and AIder Bark ought to be prohibited, except in Places where SPANISH Broom, SARETTE GENESTROLLE, and the several Parts of Walnut-tree Sumach, Fovic, RODOUL, are us'd; but in the other places the use of them in Dying, ought to be entirely forbidden.
If the Dyers Books be well kept, and a faithful account be kept, as well of what Drugs they buy, as the Goods they Dye daily, and what Goods they send to the lesser Dyers, and what they deliver to the Merchants, or the Person who is to deliver them into the Hands of the Court, 'twould occasion two great conveniences, for which Reason, the said Books ought to be methodized and paragraph'd by the judges of Manufactures.
The first advantage which would accrue by the well keeping of the Dyers Books, is that the great Dyers Books would quadrate with the lesser Dyers Books, and both with the Hall Register of every Town. Which would prevent all good understanding, betwixt the Merchant the Dyer in the Trade of Bastard Dying, and the former's receiving his goods without the Hall Seal, or Verification, and prevent all the Dyers Measures for the use of false Drugs, or above Six Pound of Indigo to every Bale of Woad and one Pound to every Hundred weight of the slighter Woad.
And in the second Place it would effectually remove all cause of dispute, or Law Suit betwixt the Merchants and the Dyers, occasion'd by fraud or accounts Ill kept on either side ; or when by the negligence or dishonesty of the Servants, Factors and others, any Goods are lost or spoiled, the true and just right of either side would clearly appear by this method.
Besides these Precautions 'tis also necessary, that the Officers of the Draperie and the Sworn good Dyers, accompanied with some Merchants or Dyers of the Inquest, should every Week or at least every Fortnight, search the Dye Houses of both sorts of Dyers, to see if their Drugs be good, and their Stuffs well Dyed, whether they have given them the due Ground, and finishing necessary to the perfection of the Dye, and if their Books are well kept as above specified.
'Tis also necessary that the Inquest, should keep a Register in due form, and enter therein the Number of Coppers of both sorts of Woad, which every Dyer boils every Week, and the quantities of both sorts of Woad which he puts into every Copper, how many times he reheats them, and the quantity of Indigo which he uses in the good Copper, or in the reheating, that if any thing be committed irregular, they may Secure and Indict the Persons before the Judges of Manufactures.
THE use of all Non-colouring Drugs, ought to be allowed to the greater Dyers, because they only serve to dispose Stuff, to receive the Dye, and to render it more lasting and Beautiful.
There are three sorts of Non-dying Ingredients which Beautify the Dye, and a little alter the strength of it. As CENDRE GRAVELEE, or Tartar Ashes, which a little slackens the Madder Dye, enclining it more to Red in the Copper. Urine which brightens the Dye; and Aquafortis, which easily slackens the Luster of Fire or Nacarat, in Cochineal, by several little Spots, which it easily Imprints. These Drugs ought to be allowed, that we may not be deprived of those two fine Colours, which cannot be made so Beautiful and bright without them.
The two sorts of Woad, Chermes Berries, Chermes Paste Cochineal, MESEQUE, TESQUALLE, CAMPESSIANE and SYLVESTRE, Hair or Flocks, SARETTE, and GENESTROLLE ought all to be permitted to Dyers of the great and good Dye, because they all contribute to the preparing of good Dye.
Tho' Turmerick does not afford so lasting a Yellow as Spanish Broom; yet it ought to be allowed to the greater Dyers, because there is no other ingredient more proper to give a Nacarat, or Yellow Orange lustre, to Reds Dyed with Chermes Berries as the FRENCH Scarlate, as well as with Cochineal, as Crimson, or Madder, as the Madder Nacaret or Orange. Aqua-fortis will also doe the same thing, but it succeeds much the best in DUTCH Scarlate.
Indigo ought also to be allowed because tho' it does not yield a good Colour if used alone, yet it produces a good Dye if used with Woad, as directed in Article 8, 9, 10 and Il. of this instruction ; and farther because at present we are not over stored with Woad, and Indigo being one of the Chains which fastens the INDIAN Trade to FRANCE, it ought to be used.
Soot yielding a Brown Dye of a nasty smell might be forbidden, because of the ill scent, if it was not a prevention against the Worms, and more proper for Philamorts and Ox Colour, than Walnut-tree; when it is used in Madderage with Turmerick.
The Root, Bark, and Leaves of Walnut-tree and the Nut-shells, Galls, Sumach, Fovic, RODOUL, and Coperas, are all very good ingredients. Which serve either to prepare Stuffes or Dye them, and ought to be allowed in Common to both sorts of Dyers, because both are allowed to Dye Grey, and Walnut-tree Dyes, the great Dyers in Stuffs exceeding 20 pence the Ell, and Lining Stuffs exceeding half a Crown the Ell: and the lesser Dyers, in those under those Prices, wherefore 'tis necessary to permit them in common to both Dyers, to be used according to the 119 Article of this Instruction, because they cannot otherwise sort or mix their Colours.
GAROUILLE producing a Colour proper for Wools, for mixture in Rat Colour, the Wool being cleans'd in the fulling Mill, 'tis proper to use this Drug, because it will serve to produce the Rat Greys in coarse as well as fine Wools; it ought to be allowed in common to the greater or lesser Dyers, in the Wools for mixtures which they are respectively permitted to Dye.
Tho' INDIAN Wood used with Allom and Tartar, produces a false Colour, yet it yields a good and lasting Dye if used with Galls, Sumach, Rodoul, Fovic, Coperas and Verdigrease; in Blacks where it is very good to soften the Blacks and Stuffs, and makes both wear better; 'tis proper to be used in Grey and Walnut-tree Dyes of Stuffs not exceeding 20 pence the Ell, and Linnen Stuffs not exceeding half a Crown the Ell, to render the price of Dying as easy as possible; and because the great Dyers may misuse it in the falsification of Blew, or in Substituting it in the place of Woad, 'tis only to be permitted to the lesser Dyers, who are not allowed to Dye with Allom and Tartar Ashes, by which precautions the ill use thereof will be prevented.
Orseille producing a beautiful, tho' no lasting Dye, ought therefore to be allowed to the lesser Dyers in the lighter Colours of its mixture, which are difficult to be imitated, and also to give a lustre to Walnut tree Dyes; because the lesser Dyers are not allowed to Dye high priced Stuffs, and the low priced goods cannot go to the price of a strong Dye.
Alder Bark hath nothing ill in it, and the sole apprehension that it contributes to the using of Smith's Dust in the Dye, hath occasioned its prohibition, but the Advantage which occurs by the diminution of the price of Black, Grey and Walnut-tree Dyes in low-priced Stuffs where it is very proper, prevails over this fear, so that after forbidding the Smiths Dust, it entirely vanishes; and it is proper to allow Alder Bark to the lesser Dyers only, and not to the greater Dyers, how necessary soever it may be, which ought to be examined upon the Spot, and thus far it ought to be forbidden.
Verdigrease which serves to tinge the beautiful Colours of Celadon Green and Brimstone Colour, and being useful used in small quantities and half hot with INDIAN Wood Blacks, ought not to be forbidden, because it is not only advantagious and cannot be injurious (if used according to this Instruction) to the goodness or beauty of Colours, but because it affords its Dye without the preparation of Allom and Tartar, and is proper in Blacks; it ought to be allowed to the lesser Dyers, whose Business it is to dye Black.
TRENTANEL and MALHERB being a little injurious to the sight of those who use it,and their Dyes not being so certain or lasting as that of SPANISH Broom SARETTE and GENISTROLLE, nor the Colour of FUSTEL so lasting as that of SPANISH Broom or Walnut-tree, yet it serving to the heightning NACARAT DE BOURRE or pale Orange which Yellow Wood also doth, are the reasons why these four Ingredients are prohibited at present in the Dying of Wool, except the Yellow Wood which is allowed in Black.
Smiths or Cutlers Dust, and filings of Iron or Copper which sensibly spoil and harden the Stuffs and stick in the Threads and eat into them as well as the Worm, are three Ingredients which are wholly improper in Dying Wool, and ought to be absolutely forbidden as well as Turnsole.
GROMEL which affords a red brown inclining to Tawny, whose Dye being neither so fine, so good or so cheap as Madder, and being besides a Foreign Drug, ought to be absolutely forbidden as an unprofitable Ingredient.
The Rocourt Dye being dearer, and not so fine and lasting as that of Flocks, ought to be absolutely Prohibited, as well because 'tis a Foreign Drug, as, because it easily fades in Wool.
Bastard Saffron being neither so good nor profitable in dying of Wools, which receive the Dye of the Flocks much better, ought also to be absolutely forbidden, that the Dyers may not amuse themselves by drawing a false Colour from a very dear Drug.
Brasil ought to be intirely forbidden as well because it is a Bastard Dye and a Foreign Drug, which draws a great deal of money out of our Country, as because it cannot be allowed to the greater Dyers, without breaking all the Precautions taken by this Instruction, and opening a way to Bastard Dyes; Nor can it be allowed to the lesser Dyers, without the same inconvenience, and without allowing them at the same time Allom and Tartar, without which they cannot use it, and it will also give them an opportunity of Dying the Bastard Colour of INDIAN Wood; For all which Reasons I think necessary to repeat it, that Brasil Wood ought to be absolutely forbidden, to both sorts of Dyers.
ORSEILLE is allowed rather then Brasil, as well because it is used without Allom or Tartar, as because it is a Drug which Grow's, and is prepared in FRANCE, and the chief Colours of its mixtures are very difficult to supply otherwise; but Brasil may be easily supplied with Madder, Flocks or Cochineal: besides, the Madder Red, which is a very good Colour, is not much dearer than that of Brasil which is a Bastard Dye. CXLVI.
All Drugs what soever which are not expressly allowed, ought to be supposed forbidden, tho' the Reason for their prohibition be not here express'd.
Of the five simple Colours, Blew, Red and Yellow ought to be left to the greater Dyers, to Dye only without any participation of the lesser Dye, as well because they have a great deal of reciprocal relation, and require a large share of Knowledge and Experience to succeed in them, as because of all the Colours produced from their mixture the possibility of a Bastard one should be prevented; one good Colour grafted on another, tho' it yield a darker, yet it is a more lasting one.
The other two simple Colours namely Brown and Black ought to be left differently to both sorts of Dyers. The Black having before received the Woad or Woad and Madder Grounds necessary to the good Dye of the great Dyer, and afterwards galled and blackned by the lesser Dye to deprive the great Dyers of an opportunity of Dying Blacks without the Woad or Madder Grounds, and falsifying the Blew, which they might easily do if they were allowed to finish the Blacks and to use INDIAN Wood.
And because fine Wools, and high priced Stuffs, as well as coarse Wools and low priced Stuffs, are dyed Brown and Grey, which are mixtures of black, and that several of these Greys and Browns require Woad, Madder or Cochineal, to produce the good Dye, and course Wool and slight Stuffs cannot afford the price of those Drugs: To remedy which by lowering the price of Dying, INDIAN Wood and Orseille --ought to be used: and for fear the greater Dyers should misuse them, 'tis necessary to allow the Brown and Greys to be differently Dyed by both Dyers, viz., the great Dyers to Dye the high priced Stuffs with the ground or finishing of Woad, Madder or Cochineal in Colours where it is necessary, and the lesser Dyers the meaner Stuffs with INDIAN Wood and Orseille, to the end that both may sort their Colours, and that the good Dye may not have leave to use INDIAN Wood or Orseille in Greys or Walnut-tree Dyes in fine Stuffs, nor to the Bastardizing the Blew.
After having given the Reasons why some Drugs are allowed and others forbidden, and why Dying is divided into the great and lesser Dye, it being necessary yet to answer some Memoires, and these Answers serving to illustrate and remove all difficulties from things of this nature, it is thought good to include them in this Instruction to the end that every Person may inform himself thereof.
Some Dyers are of the Opinion that the Brasil Wood Dye mixt with Walnut-tree yields a lasting Colour in Wool for mixture; but experience demonstrates the contrary and the use of Madder being more efficacious, the desire of using it can only be attributed to an ill Custom and disgust against well doing, for if any Colour lasts in the mixture of Stuffs, 'tis rather the effect of Walnut or Galls than Brasil, for the Violet Colour which it gives to Stuffes, intirely vanishes, especially if they are used in Breeches betwixt the thighs, or the Stuffs in wearing are exposed to the Sun or ill Weather, it quite changes to a Yellowish or brown Colour very different from the rest; and INDIAN Wood it self, tho' strengthned with Verdigrease, Galls and Coperas in blacks, being used in too great quantity either in Grey or Walnut-tree Dyes, of Wools for mixture or Stuffs or in brownings, is very apt to spot with the least drop of Urine, or any Acid or corroding Liquor: wherefore Woad, Madder and Cochineal, are better used in Wools or Stuffs of value in Colours where the too great quantity of the other, and the small quantity of Galls or Coperas, which may be used, produces this ill effect.
There are others who imagine because Fustel and Yellow Wood are proper in Gold Colour, Shammy or Buff Colour and necessary in Olives and Phillamorts that they ought to be allowed in these Dyes, that indeed they may be furnished with an Opportunity of using them in the Bastardizing and strengthning of NACARET Flocks, pale Oranges, or other important Colours which they can alter: but supposing that incorporated with SPANISH Broom it composes a better and more lasting Yellow, Olive and Philamort Dyes, than SPANISH Broom alone: For who is ignorant that knows but the least principles of Dying, that SPANISH Broom cannot produce a Phillamort or Olive Colour, if there be not Brown mixt with Yellow in the first, and above that with the Blew and Yellow for the first, and Brown, Blew and Yellow for the second, and that the Brown for these two Colours can more easily be tinged with Soot and Walnut-tree: But 'tis with this pretext that they Colour their earnest desire to have Fustel allowed them, that they may really use it in the falsification of Dyes wherein it is forbid. Yellow Wood being nevertheless proper for Blacks, 'twill be necessary to allow it in places where it shall be found necessary.
There are yet other Dyers whose Intention to act slily and closely renders them more dangerous, who to cloak their contravening designs, desire leave to prepare certain Dyes, as that they call Beaver- Black without being obliged to disclose what Drugs they use, nor the manner of preparing it. If their Drugs were good and allowed, they would not have occasion for any other than the general permission, but their Ingredient being forbidden we ought always to distrust their intention, till by a just examination of the Drugs and manner of preparing this Colour, we be able to judge of the good and advantage of this Colour, and of the permission which they desire.
But that no discoverer of any secret in this Art may be deprived of the advantage of his Invention, nor Labour under any inconveniences by this examination, nor loose any other profit by it; if it be found good and advantageous, it will be necessary to grant the Inventer, or he that brings it into FRANCE, a Patent that no Person besides himself should exercise it in that Province: where he thinks fit to settle, and that he should be empowered to sell or give leave to others, to exercise it in all the other Counties of FRANCE.
The same may be effectually extended to Forreigners to oblige them by this Privilege to discover their secret and reap the advantage of it in FRANCE; But care ought always to be taken that a good secret never remain in the hands of one Person alone, least it should be lost by his leaving the Kingdom or his death, which may be easily remedyed by allowing them the profit of teaching it in other Provinces : But if the secret is known to any Frenchman he ought always to be preferred to Strangers, because he is likely to stay with the money he gets by it in the Realm.
As 'tis of great importance to search in Provinces, for all the Herbs, Drugs, Minerals, or Roots which may contribute to good Dying; 'tis also necessary that they should not be permitted, before a strict examination whether their Colour good and profitable, and as there are provinces which want one thing and abound in another which produces the same effect it should be committed to the prudence of the judges of manufactures, that are upon the spot, who ought to give their resolution in writing upon the petition presented; and as delays may be very pernicious, if the ingredient be found to be good, the use of it ought to be allowed during the Kings pleasure, or till further order only.
But to prevent any impertinent petitions which may be presented upon this occasion, or any other person's serving himself of the allowance of any Drug in one Colour, where it is proper to use it in another, where it perniciously either falsifies the Dye or damages the Stuffes, 'tis necessary to impose a penalty upon those who present these petitions; that thay may take care to examine them strictly before they offer them.
Tho' 'tis certain that a Black Dye in which INDIAN-Wood is used as specifyed in this instruction, may be very easily done and that it is warmer, finer, softer, and wears better than without it; yet it doth not very naturally follow that we should therefore deprive the Stuffes of the necessary ground of Woad, (as some Dyers will very improperly do in weak and slight Stuffs) as well because to render the Black certain and lasting, requires a double quantity of other ingredients which renders it dearer than Woad, (which will oblige the Dyers to compass their ends to retrench the greatest part of the Dye, and thereby render the Colour doubly ill:) as because the Black Dyes where INDIAN-Wood is used in too great a quantity, without being fortified by a Woad or Woad and Madder ground, will spot and change reddish in those places where Urine or any sharp Liquor happens to come. But as this secret is discovered in all Articles concerning Blacks in this Instruction, it will be vain to the Dyers to pretend to conceal it, to furnish themselves with a pretext to Dye Black without Woad and Madder Grounds, since that Colour will not be sufficient to hide their Contravention as will appear more clearly in the 10th part.
Observations on Part Seventh and Eighth.
THESE two Chapters treating of the same subject, viz., the allowance and prohibition of Dying Ingredients, with this difference only that one of them treats of the causes why they are allowed or forbidden, 'twill not be unproper to join the Observations together.
The Author speaks of Non-Dying Ingredients which are either added to the Dye or make the Stuffes supple and stronger or cleanse them (amongst the first is Allom, and the last Tartar) or they heighten the Dye as the several sorts of the Salts with or without alteration, as PotAshes, Salt-peter, Common Salt, Cristal or Mineral Salt, Sal Armoniac, Lime, Ashes; and without alteration, as Liquors, viz., Spirit of Wine, Urine, &c. Of the use of the first, see notes on Article 18. And concerning Urine the Author in Article 128 tells us that it brightens the Madder Dyes, but it hath sometimes a quite contrary effect, especially if it be stale, and the Volatil Salt a little more fermented for it penetrates into the dying Liquors and always renders the Colours thick and deeper, as may be observed in the pale and deeper Madder Colours. The mention'd flowers of Wheat and Pease as well as Starch and Bran serve to slacken and temper the hardness of the Waters in Article 121. The mentioned Brasil Wood as also Wild Saffron is much used in GERMANY, but the Colour of the latter is somewhat more durable than the first, which is no lasting Colour. As for Madder if we would consider our own interest we might produce enough of it in GERMANY to ballance the HOLLANDERS Ships who trade with us if we pleased. Iron filings render the stuff harsh and bum the Dye. As to the prohibition of Alder bark the ingredient is not so dangerous, but that if well prepared it may very well be allowed; but of that more in the notes on the next part.
THE Black Dye in valuable and midling Stuffes is most important, as well because this colour is liable to the most frauds, the discovery whereof is very difficult, as because 'tis a Dye which is used in the finest Stuffes which are worn by people of the best quality; 'tis also necessary to take very good care that the Dyers Dye the best Black that they possibly can without sensibly injuring the Stuffes or seriously enhancing the price of the Dye.
High prized Stuffes ought all to be Maddered for four reasons.
First, because it renders the Dye the better, more finer and more serviceable.
Secondly, because dear Stuffes being made of the finest Wools, they being moister and more oily will be apt to soil and more easily catch dust, or the lint of Table Cloths, Napkins and old linnen, if they are not well cleansed with Allom, Tartar, and Madder before they are Dyed Black.
Thirdly, if the Black Dyes of fine Stuffs are not Maddered, they require more Copperas; an ingredient much more corroding than Allom.
And fourthly, because fine Black Stuffes which have been Madder'd, being dryer and better freed from their Oilyness, are more healthful in the wearing than if they had not.
No body can deny that fine Stuffes being Madder'd are better, more beautiful and more wholesom than if they had not; but we may very well doubt of the wear and lasting of the Stuffes if we don't know.
That no Drugs are so sharp and Corrosive as Salts, and particularly Allom and Coperas, which by their extraordinary heat harden the Stuffs and render them less lasting, by drying up the Oleaginous humidity which renders them flexible and keeps the Hair of the Wool fast; but it doth not necessarily follow that the small quantity of Allom used in a Madder'd Black, corrected with a great deal of Tartar and suffered to boil but a very little while, can produce this ill effect ; but on the contrary the drying the superfluous Oily Moistness of the Wool and cleansing it with Tartar and Madder renders it more lasting, by hindering the dust from staying in it which eats the Thread of the Wool as much as the Mothe, and preventing the lint of Table Cloths, Napkins, and old Linnen from sticking to it, and always soiling it, which tho' it is no very great fault, yet a great many are ignorant both of cause and remedy of it.
If Black Stuffs be said not to be lasting, 'tis as well those not Madder'd, as those which are; which may proceed from a fault in the Stuff, or in its preparation, or by the ignorance of the Dyer in not using Allom, Tartar, Madder, according to the prescribed form or tinging the Black in the proper manner, and with the necessary Drugs.
Tho' there are few Dyers who know the quality or degree of humidity or dryness of the Drug which they use, nor why one Drug is more proper for one Colour than another, yet all the great Dyers either know or ought to know that Allom not only disposeth the Stuff to receive the Dye, but gives it an agreeable vivacity, and that Tartar is used not only to correct the sharpness of the Allom, but to dispose the Stuff to receive the Dye. Where the lively luster which Madder adds to the Black Dye is not required, by using a very little Allom and a sufficient quantity of Tartar, and letting the Stuffs boil a little, the Sharpness of the Allom will be removed, as experience confirms.
Woad and Madder, are not only used to beautify the Blacks, and render them more lasting in fine Stuffs, but to prevent the excessive use of Coperas, which is necessary if they were Dyed from White immediately Black; so that to avoid an imaginary inconvenience we generally fall into a real one, the sharpness of the Coperas, which must be used in greater quantities in fine Stuffs without they are Madder'd, being more to be feared than that of Allom, Tartar and Madder.
'Tis to no purpose that some alledge that the Red of Stuffs madder'd for Black, is more difficult to tinge Black, than the liveliness of Blew, and also requires more Coperas ; for 'tis well known that this sort of Maddering inclines but a very little or not at all to Red, and by using INDIAN Wood in the Black Dye, the Red is easily surmounted, nor need we boil the Stuffs long in Galls, nor make the Coperas bath very hot, because INDIAN Wood, which serves in this place instead of Galls, makes the Stuffs take the Black if the Bath be but moderately heated, which hinders the sharpness and softens the Stuffs in Black Dyes.
Tho' fine Stuffs ought to be both Woaded and Madder'd, yet in fine unspun Wools the case is different because the Allom and Woad drying the Hair of the Wool, render it inflexible to the Spinners Fingers, and prevent its keeping fast in the Fulling; but we ought to content ourselves with Woading them alone, the Blew how deep so ever always cleansing and softning rather than hardning the hair of the Wool.
As Stuffs to be Dyed Black made of fine Wool, ought to be Madder'd to dry and cleanse them, so Stuffs made of a midling course Wool, being of themselves dry enough, and often too dry, ought only to be well Woaded, the Woad preserving and augmenting the softness of the Stuffs, and rendering the Colour very good and lasting if properly used, and in sufficient quantity, according to the goodness and strength of the Stuffs. But the Blew either of the best Woad alone or mixt with the slighter Woad and Indigo, must be given according to the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th Articles of this Instruction, otherwise the Dye will be bastardized, for which reason, 'tis above all of great importance to take care to have a perfect Black, whether it be Madder'd or Woaded only.
Before we can well fix the grounds of Woad alone, or of Woad and Madder, of all sorts of Stuffs to be Dyed Black, according to the fineness of the Wool and strength of the Stuff, we ought to be previously inform'd.
First, that strong Rashes and double Serges which are made of good Wool, being connected together as well by the texture of the Threads, as the conjunction of the hairs of the Wool which have not been broken by the card or Fullers Thistle, ought to have a stronger ground than Stuffs of the same Wool combed, because they last much longer.
Secondly, That the Dye penetrating much easier the open, then the fast or Close Stuffs, the last sort ought to have a stronger ground; that thereby the quick penetration of the Dye in the others may here be compensated by the strength.
Thirdly, Lining Stuffs being commonly more loose and open, and less exposed to the Sun and Rain, ought to have less ground than those which are more exposed to wearing or the injuries of Weather, tho' made of the same Wool.
In the fourth place, That the Rashes of CHALONS, AMIENS, RHEIMS, CHARTRES and other slight Stuffs, nor being half so lasting as those of NISMES, MONTAUBAN, S. GAUDENS and other strong Rashes ; they ought to have a less ground proportionable to their duration, tho' they cost more and are often made of very fine Wool.
That we may duly and advantageously Observe all that hath been said, we ought to be inform'd that all Cloths of an Ell and Ell and three quarters, or an Ell and an half, whether English, SPANISH or DUTCH, or of SAPTE, CARCASSONNE, ELBEUF, ROUEN, SEDAN, or other sorts of make, of the fineness and breadth which exceeds the Price of 12 Livers the Ell, should be Woaded like an ALDEGUO and Madder'd as the best sort.
The DRAPS DE BERRY or Cloaths of Berry, SIG0VIA, ROUEN, DIEPPE, FESCAN, CARCASSONE and SEDAN, all sorts of fine Ratines, Serges of SIGOVIA and LIMESTRE, double Serges, and other such like Stuffs of what breadth or make soever, from four Livers 10 Sous to 12 Livres the Ell, shou'd be Woaded to a Perfick Blew (BLEUPERS) and a little less Madder'd than the others above, and for those under 4 Livers 10 Sols they ought to be Woaded to a Perfick Blew, and not Madder'd at all.
Druggets of fine Wools called half fulled Druggets, narrow Ratines, CORDELATES of AVIGNON and other Stuffs of the same Nature, of half Ell or a quarter of an Ell wide, exceeding the Price of three Livers the Ell, ought to be Woaded to a Perfick Blew and Madder'd in the same manner as the Serges and Ratines above mention'd; Having always respect to their Price and breadth.
Cloath Serges and Ratines of whatsoever breadth, make or finess, from 3 Livers to four Livres 10 Sous the Ell, ought to be Woaded to a Perfick Blew, and those of less Price to the BLEW DE Roy, Kings Blew, without being Madder'd.
LONDON, CHALONS and RHEIMS Serges, POLHILAIRE RASHES and the * Lords RASH of NISMES and USEZ, fine RASHES of ALBY, CASTRES and MONTAUBAN, strong Cross Lords RASHES of ST. GAUDENS, ROMAN Serges: Lords Serge, Serge de SOMERE a Narrow double Serge, FLANDERS BARRACANS, double Burats of St. GAUDENS, and other the like sorts of Stuffs of the same breadth of whatsoever make, not exceeding 2 Livres the Ell, ought to be Woaded as the Perfick Blew and not Madder'd.
* So called from Persons of Qualities wearing them.
The midling sort of Satines of BEAUVAIS, English Frises; Bayes, Serges and Flannels; Serges of Mouij, MERRON, AUMALLE CREVE CEUR; RASHES of ST. Lo and ST. GAUDENS; LINGETTES of CADU and FALAISE, Camelot or Camblets of AMILY, ARRAS and L'ISLE; BAYES Of CASTRES and BURGUIERE, slight RATINES of SOMMERE, CADRI, DARICANE; CRAPES of CASTRES, and all other sorts of Narrow Stuffs, of what make soever, from 25 pence to 40 pence the Ell, ought to be Woaded as the Turkish Blew without being Madder'd.
Frises of AMIENS and VALENTINE of an Ell, broad Serges of CHARTRES, NOGENT and of CHARTRES make, CORDELATES Of CRE, slight FRIPONS and CADIS of NISMES, Serge of AUMALLE of two thirds breadth; TAMIES OF AMIENS, DU LUDE, DE RHEIMS, slight Burats of St. GAUDENS and D'AUVERGNE RASHES not Crossed and CADIS of ST. GAUDENS and all other slight Stuffs, from 12 to 25 pence the Ell, ought at least to be Woaded to a Sky Colour.
The CADIS and FRISONS DUPUY DU GEVANDAN, slight CORDELATS of ST. GENIES, BURATTES of AUVERGNE, Serges of ST. FLOUR, and other slight Stuffs, not exceeding 12 pence the Ell, ought to be Woaded as the BLEW MEGNON which is but half the mixture of the Sky Colour; and the Reader ought to take Notice that all the mention'd prizes of the Stuffes are meant when they are yet White.
All Wools for mixture ought to be Woaded with the same ground with the Stuffs, wherein they are to be used, without Maddering, that they may have a Dye suitable to their Value. Woolen CAPS ought to be Woaded to the same ground, with their Wool, and Worsted Stockens exceeding 3 Livres the Pair ought to be Dyed, according to their finess, being to be Woaded as the Kings Blew ; Those from 40 pence to 3 Livres as the TURKISH BLEW, and those of lower prizes as Sky Colour: But for the Wools for Farandines or other Stuffs where the Wool is Cover'd, 'twill be sufficient to Woad them as Sky Colours, this ground being enough to give these sorts of Manufactures a perfect Black.
The great and lesser Dyers ought to be allowed to augment the ground in the Dying of Stuffs, whether that of Woad only or that of Woad and Madder, as the Merchants may (if they think fit to pay the Price for it) order a stronger ground, but it ought to be strictly forbidden to both Merchant and Dyers, to Diminish or cause to be Diminished, the Grounds order'd by these rules, because they ought at least to come up to that to deserve the Name of good Dyes.
And to the end that no Person may be excused from giving the due grounds to all sorts of Stuffs, several Patterns of four Ells each, shou'd be Dyed with every sort of Ground, half of which to be lodged in the Hall or Corporation of Merchants and Dyers in every Town, to serve as Master Pieces to have recourse to upon all occasions.
'Twould be to no purpose to take care that a good ground be bestow'd on all Woollen Manufactures and Wools, if the same care be not taken that a good Black be Dyed upon that afterwards, by well Galling them with a sufficient quantity of Galls, and Sumack, and if Sumack be wanting with RODOUL and Fovic, and tinging them Black in the same bath with a sufficient quantity of INDIAN Wood and Coperas with a little Verdigrease; the INDIAN Wood being first boiled alone, suffering it to take leisurely, often lading and Ventilating it, by which means the Black will be render'd more Beautiful and soft, as well as more certain and lasting, and wear much better than if INDIAN Wood were not used in it. That Ingredient ascertaining and Meliorating the Dye, with the help of Galls and Coperas. Yellow Wood is also very useful in Blacks.
'Tis not enough that care only be taken that a sufficient quantity of Galls, Coperas, INDIAN Wood and Sumach or RODOUL, and Fovic in lieu of it be used to produce a good Black. But the Stuffs ought to be spread at large in the Copper and not crowded that they may not wrinckle and Burn rather than Dye.
To prevent the Blacks soiling of Linnen Black or Blew, the Stuffs ought to be well cleansed before we begin to Dye them, and the Copper well prepared when we give them the Blew, and care ought to be taken that the Blew be not of Indigo alone, or used in a third or fourth reheating; because all these hinder the adhesion of the Dye to the Stuffs, and occasion its throwing it off upon Linnen. The Stuffs ought to be very well Washed after the Blew, and also after the Black, or rather pass a small fulling if possible, for the Blacker the Dye the greater is the difficulty of Washing it. Stuffs of price ought also to be passed through a SPANISH Broom Bath to cleanse and soften them.
As the quantity of the Drugs which the lesser Dyer is obliged to put into his Blacks, cannot be regulated otherwise than upon the spot according to the length, breadth, finess and goodness of the Stuff, it ought also to vary according to the variety of Grounds and 'tis then to be feared that the lesser Dyer should retrench, a part of the quantity, which shall be Established, to save his purse at the expense of the Dye.
'Tis necessary that at the same time the division betwixt the greater and the lesser Dye is made, the quantity of the Ingredients which every lesser Dyer shou'd be obliged to use, in the dying of every sort of Stuff which they are accustomed to Dye black in every City, should be settled betwixt the greater and lesser Dyer, and orders given to the jury of the great Dyers to go twice every month, at least, to search the lesser Dye Houses, to take care of the goodness and quantity of the Ingredients, and the manner of using them; to the end that the Stuffs, to which they have given a good Ground, may also have a good Black bestowed on them; and if the greater Dyers cannot agree with the lesser Dyers about the quantities, the judges of Manufactures or Commissioners may adjust and regulate them, from the Reasons of both sides, or according to custom.
The better to oblige the lesser Dyers, to put in the just quantity of Ingredients, 'twou'd be convenient to cause three or four Ells of every sort of Stuff, and Ground, to be very well Dyed Black with the Proper quantities of Ingredients, which should afterwards pass into a Rule of quantities ; and these patterns to be disposed, one third to the Corporation of lesser Dyers, one Third to the Company of the great Dyers, and the other to the Company of Merchants, to serve as Master pieces and Patterns to determine concerning the goodness of the Dye, both as to its lustre and boiling.
Observations on the Ninth Part.
TO consider the Black Dye, after our Author seems to have Handled it to perfection, to render it yet more extensive and clear, and to handle it more Fundamentally, will not be improper. Wherefore to let his reasons, for the necessity of Establishing Madder, and other Grounds, or rather necessary Grounds in General, to let them, I say, depend on their own weight and not to touch upon Article 168 concerning the working of Allom, because we have done it before; We shall immediately pass to 169, and 170. In the first, he gives the Reason of Madder Grounds being necessary from the advantage which accrues from its prevention of the excessive use of Coperas; but in the latter he gives a supposed answer to an Objection, not so slight as he would have us think it is. As to the first, 'tis easy to believe that to Dye a Stuff Dark Colour or Black, which bath already been Dyed a preparatory Colour requires less of the Black or deep Dye than to dye it from White ; but here are two difficulties to be cleared. First, whether less of all the Ingredients be required, or when prepared less of the Dye, or less of the one Ingredient alone which the Author seems to mean, Secondly whether to Dye Black well, one Ground is better than another, and which is the best. To clear the first, 'tis necessary to lay down the whole Ground of the Black Dye.
He that by the help of Chymistry is somewhat acquainted with Nature, knows that in all Dyes produced from Vegetables, whether from Trees Flowers or Fruits, the Bodies, either Naturally or Artificially Salt produce several alterations. Also that all Acids as Allom, Salt and above the rest sharp Acids or Acid Spirits, as those of Salt Vitriol, and Vinegar, turn the Vegetable Dyes Red ; and that if the Green Vegetable its self be infused in one of these liquors it is Tinged Red. The Alcaline Salts, as Salt of Tartar, Pot-Ashes and all boil'd Ashes or Lies and fixed Salts fetch the Colour to Green again. The Urinary Volatile Salts, as Salts of Urin, Urinary Spirit of Sal Armoniac, &c. rather turn the Dye thick than alter it. To give a remarkable Instance in one of these tender Colours. Take Tincture of Violets in a Glass, or a little Blew Lack infused in a Viol of Water, pour on it Spirit of Salt or Vitriol and it will become Red - throw in dissolved Salt of Tartar and it returns to its Colour, but put in too great a quantity of this infusion and it becomes green, and of both more or less, as it proceeds from the one or the other. And this alteration is general to all Vegetables, with this difference only, that the fine or tender Colours are changed after a different way from the Gross and hard ones; the former, as we have already shewen, and the latter change a quite different way, according as they have more or less of a Woody or Vicious Nature mixt with their Rosin and therein consisting Colour, as also according as the mixture is more or less subtile, will appear hereafter.
We find that Rinds, Wood or Fruit of vegetables, by the addition of Allom, or which is more unlikely Vitriol, are charg'd from the most uncertain and Imperceptible Colours, to the most perceptible, namely Black. A most remarkable Instance of which we have in the Oak Leaves, and Fruit, and more particularly in the Excresence which grows upon the leaves thought to be little Berries or Galls, besides the Galls which are commonly produced by a particular sort of Oak. 'Tis also to be observ'd of the Alder, that upon the proper mixture of broken pieces of it with Sumach, also here required, the prevailing Tast is according to the Physitians, an Astringent or Rough bitter, and Salt, and when either of these is boiled with Virtiol it yields a Black Liquor; but other Astringent Vegetables do not produce the same effect, as clearly appears in immature Crabs or Choak-Pears, which if tryed will not succeed like the former Ingredients : But to solve this PHENOMENAON, best, the bitter Saltness, ought to be corrected with a Subtil Wood dust or Powder, which leaves a rougher farewell behind, and then the bitter Saltness is removed.
From whence may Naturally be inferred, that all Vegetables which are Astringent, and have a rough farewel; the more they incline to change Black, the longer their rough farewel lasts upon the Palate. On the Contrary, there are some Astringent Woody Materials, which are not Subject to this alteration ; the best instance whereof is Madder, which when boiled with so large a quantity of Vitriol or Coperas, that it turns to a Black Brown,if poured off and left in a Vessel to settle, the Brown will infallibly sink to the bottom, and leave the remaining liquor of a Yellowish undistinguishable Brown: But boil the Madder first with Pot-Ashes, and then add a Solution of Vitriol and it will yield a Dark Clove Brown, proportionable to the greater or quantity of each or both Ingredients, from which experiment I conclude, that Madder hath a quality which in conjunction with Vitriol, will produce a Black, tho' neither of them unmixt immediately yield that Tincture, yet the Vitriol seems to contribute the most, because mixt with Gall, as well as in conjunction with Madder, it produces Black, so that the latter seems not to be so Instrumental in the Black as the other.
But the better to observe its defect, twill not be amiss to consider three things ; first, if we compare Madder with Galls we shall find that the bitterness of Madder is more subtile, but not so lasting and Poinant as the Galls, which leave a very perceptible Astringency in the Mouth, and the Madder is not so rough as the other; whence may be inferred, that its salt is not sufficiently near of Kin to be corrected by ligneous matter, or that it hath a Root of a different Nature from the Wood, which is truly dissoluble into these salts. THIRDLY, in Madder we may observe a plentiful Tincture, which is not obvious in Galls, but they are to be boiled with the Stuffs long enough to make your Powder stick in the Pores thereof, from all which it appears that there is no similitude betwixt the effects of Galls and Madder, without the intermediate assistance of Pot-Ashes, which alter the Operation immediately. If we consider the effect of Pot-Ashes upon Madder by a mixture of both, we may observe that the Madder turns to a Rose Colour or sort of Purple Blood Colour, but not in the least to the Black or Brown, for the Purple is a Red Blew and not a Black Red, from whence it may reasonably be concluded that the change in the mixture of Madder and Vitriol, is not in the least owing to the former. But now come we to consider what effect Pot-Ashes have upon Vitriol; wherefore take Vitriol dissolved in warm Water, and put to it dissolved Salt of Tartar or Pot-Ashes; after the putting in the Coperas or green Vitriol, and several Ebullitions, it becomes first Yellow and then deep Brown, or sometimes a Black Tincture, according as the Vitriol is impregnated with Iron, from whence I infer, that Madder could not contribute any thing to that end in our former Experiment; but let this Black Brown Liquor, produced from the mixture, stand a little to settle, or filtrate it, and the whole Substance of the Black Brown settles to the bottom or remains behind in the filtring Cloath, and the Liquor appears light and clear; when on the contrary, in the before mentioned Process, with Vitriol and Madder, after the setling of the gross Particles, the Liquor appeared of a Clove Brown Colour, without diluting, and the Sediment fouler and thicker; from which it clearly appears that the Salts did not unite in that experiment, and that in the mixture of Pot-Ashes and Vitriol, new Salts are produced.
From what hath been observed; the Ground of the Black Dye may be Collected, for First, Everything doth not produce every thing, nor can you infer what you will, from what you will, but must determine from determined Principles. Black is not produced from every Ingredient, but from known Materials; among which experience tells us that Galls and Vitriol are best: The former is impregnated with a bitter harsh Salt, which Corrodes and Coagulates its own ligneous parts. And the latter is known to be an Acid, that also Corrodes and Coagulates Iron and Copper, and upon a mixture of these two, the Alcalous Salt of the Galls so operates upon the Acidity of the Vitriol, and so unites with it, that a new Body is produced, both quitting their former Principles, viz., Subtil Oak Dust and Iron, which they suffer to sink to the bottom, and from this mixture the Black Liquor, a Body of a new Figure is produced, which becomes thick from its contained Salt; and the Subtil moving Particles cannot so soon sink to the Bottom, but require some time as appears clearly in common Ink, which at first continues blackest whilst the contained Allom and Salt of Vitriol are thick, but decant it and pour fresh Water upon it, and the Ink immediately becomes White : Decant the first black Ink, and set it some time in the air, and the blackest thick matter settles to the bottom tho' the Liquor by the Salts yet therein remaining, throws up the most Subtil Particles, not suffering them to sink to the bottom, the Liquor so that is yet black enough.
Thus it follows from our Hypothesis above mentioned, upon Article 169, that ACCORDING TO OUR MENTIONED METHOD the proper quantity of the Chief Ingredient, viz,. Vitriol, cannot be diminished without diminishing the other, or in reality the quantity of the Dye itself; but less quantities of these Dying Ingredients are necessary when the Stuffs have before received a preparatory Dye; but it is not here to be concluded that the quantity of Galls, Sumach or Alder Bark, may be encreased and that of Vitriol diminished ; for the blackness of the Dye is caused by the Subtil Particles of Iron, and by how much more Subtil the Particles are, so much blacker is the Dye (for the thick Particles contain but a very weak Styptick quality, and if they bind at all they Corrode the Stuff, which is the reason that the filings of Iron are forbidden, in all sorts of Black throughout the whole Tract ;) now those Particles precipitate and combine with the Subtil Ligneous Particles, and the remainder not having imbibed a sufficient quantity of Vitriol me Matter, remains Yellowish and can never to be tinged Black.
But the better to clear this difficulty, let us examine, whether one lasting Dye conduces more to the Dying a perfect deep Black, than another, and which that is. Our Author himself seems to offer this to our consideration, Article 170 in endeavouring to answer an Objection, which prefers the Blew Ground to the Red, because the latter is harder to turn Black, and consequently requires more Coperas, which rots the Stuff. But to explain this, let us lay down two principles, which result from what our Author Asserts, viz. First, That Stuffs dyed from White to Black, or with a Black Ground, are not lasting, and for that reason wants a slight Red Ground: and, Secondly, That INDIAN or Blew Wood Meliorates the whole Dye: Then I would ask why the Red Blew or any other Ground is given to the Stuffs? To which 'tis answered, That it drys and cleanses the Stuff from its oiliness and Spots as Article 161, but I dare assure the Reader, that this effect is not directly owing to the Madder, but if anything of that Nature is to be expected, 'tis wholly to be ascribed to the Allom and Pot-Ashes : But, Secondly, Article 163, We are told that this Process gives occasion to a more sparing use of Vitriol, but the reasonableness of that I am a stranger to; for the Red Ground is given to the Stuff, as previous to a black Dye, or that it should remain red; If the first is design'd? Then doubtless something else must be added to make it Black, and there is no Ingredient that is known to do better nor so well as Vitriol, wherefore the more is required, for, First, There must be so much used as will Blacken the Galls, and after that such a quantity a part as will tinge the Madder Black, and being convinced by the former experiment, that Virtiol will not turn Madder Black, nor even Brown without the help of a great quantity of Pot-Ashes ; it follows that the Red is not design'd to be changed in the Stuff, or 'tis contradictory to reason, according to the first cleared Hypothesis, and to Experience it self.
But is the red Colour to remain upon the Stuff? I then ask why? but find the appearance of an Answer, Article 160,161. That all high priced Stuffs ought to be Maddered for four Reasons. First, because it renders the Dye better, finer and more serviceable ; in what sense it is better'd, may be collected from what has been said. Secondly that 'tis finer, but then we ought to Consider which is finest, the deepest Black that continues Black to the last, or nearest to Black in the wear, or bastard Black, which appears Brownish to the Eye and wears Brown: Say it is the last, then our Authors assertion is good, and the Imposition continues, but stick to reason and believe Black to be Black, and to be so much the finer, by how much the Blacker it is, and the Consequence is obvious. Thirdly, But if it be asked which I think the best Ground, the Red or what other Colour? To this I answer, That if a Ground be necessary and advantagious, to the Stuff in preventing that so much of the Black Dye, or consequently of the Vitriol, be not required, and that it seems to be better cleansed, and more proper to have a previous dark Dye, which should cleanse and make it wear better; the Answer begets another question, whether the Ground be best that is deepest or darkest, 2nd approaches nearest to Black?
If so, without doubt the Blew is more proper than the Red, and the Brown than both; for if we consider upon both accounts, which most Approximates to the Black, we then find no affinity betwixt that and the Red. But the Brown, especially the Walnut tree Brown, seems to be very near a Kin to it, but mix it with Red and Yellow, and it is one third more remote. On the contrary, take white burnt Gypsum or Plaister, and mix it with a good Black, by how much better the Black is, so much finer will its produced Grey be, and take a well mixt light Grey, and it will be found to incline so much to the Blew, that 'tis hard to believe that it hath any Black in it, from all which I conclude, that no Ground is more proper for Blacks, than Blew, nor causes the Black to wear better, for when it fades it turns towards Grey, which is a Species of Black: but I expect it should be warmly demanded whether the best judges in the Art of Dying, would prefer the Blew before the Walnut-tree Ground in Blacks, but if they have ever been informed that the Walnut Dye produceth it self a principal Black, and is so used by the Silk Dyers, they would give place to the Blew.
And if any would ask why the Stuff should not be Grounded by the Brown, when it hath been sufficiently proved above, that the Black Dye is the deepest Brown, and is hard, rough, and astringent from its darkness of Colour, and therefore less of it should be used, and if it be consider'd, what Ingredients must be used in the Walnut Brown, and that the Black can only be helped by its like, viz., Vitriol, upon reading Article, 163, and understanding it, we WILL NOT BE EASILY MADE to believe that many wonderful Arguments lye against it : Not to insist that according to this way, the ungrounded Stuffs which are design'd to be Dyed immediately from white to black, differ in nothing else, from those grounded with Brown, but only in the preparation with Galls, mention'd in Article 4. From all which I take it for granted, that I have sufficiently proved the Blew Ground to be best, and leave those who are fond of our Author's Opinion in favour of the Red Ground, corrected with the INDIAN or Blew Wood, to their choice, whether they had rather choose a Dye prepared from pure lasting Materials, which is fundamentally good, or perform the Operation with useless Ingredients, with the addition of another full as worthless, and render the Dye weak and fading: And so much for the decision of the first question.
After having considered the Ground of the Black Dye, proceed we to the practick Part thereof, so far as is necessary to a fundamental Instruction in general ; which, 'tis plain, from the Reasons above mention'd, consists in the proper use of Vitriol, and the before named Vegetables, besides some others which are either not so much in use or not so well known, call'd by the French RODOUL and Fovic. 'Tis the greater part of practick Dying by uncertain Experiments to discover the proportion of Vitriol and Galls, which will produce the design'd Dye, and what farther quantity is to be added to heighten it as much as desired and not more, to which end take Galls, break them to pieces or beat them small, boil them pretty long in water, let it cool, and strain it through a piece of Cloth, so carefully that none of the thick parts pass through; then take Vitriol, lay it thin upon a Dish, put it into a warm Stove or Oven, or in Summer expose it to the Sun upon a piece of slate, till it becomes friable, when it will be white or a little Yellowish, and turns to Powder, which lay in fresh cold Water, stirring it, after which let it stand a whole Night, and then you will find a Yellowish Sediment at the bottom of the glass, decant the Liquor so far as 'tis clear, and filter the remainder thro' Brown Paper, still taking care to put an equal quantity of Water to each proportionable to its weight, one being to be boiled the other to be stirred. For example. Take one part of Galls, and half part of Vitriol, and let the proportion of Water answer to each of these, otherwise if too great a quantity of Water be used, it will cause a remarkable difference in the Black. But to come to experience, take first of this Gall Water one part, and of Vitriol Water half part, mix them together in a Glass vessel, in a second mix one part of Gall Water, and one third part of the Solution of Vitriol, and in a third mix one part of the one, and a fourth part of the other. Set these Glasses in an exact equal heat, in an Earthen Furnace, so that the one is not more remarkably warm than the other, and the quantity of Liquor proportioned to each, and you will find the less quantity of Liquor hot first, and mix and incorporate it self with more warmth than the larger quantity: when it seems to heat without boiling, you may make your Observations upon them successively: And as many proves as you make, take so many pices of white Paper, and make them up in conical Shapes like our Sugar-loaves, and into each of these pour as near as possible an equal quantity of the Black Liquor in each of the Glasses, marking the Cones which Glass they belong to, by which you will easily be enabled to make a judgement, which is the blackest, and that is certainly the best.
I have formerly put one part Galls and half part Vitriol, but it succeeded only according to example. If an equal quantity of each be tried the experiment will not be accompanied with any inconvenience, but it is certain that betwixt the Galls and Vitriol, you may try withal, the proportion of mutual Cohesion or degree of black being adjusted, the Galls will not imbibe any more Vitriol than necessary, and so the Dye will not be deepened by any addition thereof, and in one word, 'tis absolutely necessary, and of the greatest importance, by this or some other Experiment, to find the nice proportion of Vitriol to the Galls, which will so deepen the Dye, that a farther addition of Vitriol cannot render it Blacker: In order to which I dare assure any Critic that he may easily see, that when he has once discover'd the just quantity of Vitriol, however great it be, he need not be afraid that any inconvenience will accrue thereby. When the Dye is once perfectly made if you throw in yet more Galls than the abovemention'd proportion, they have no more effect than if you threw them out of the Window, and repeat the attempt, and you will find it the same thing. On the contrary prepare the Dye from the just proportions, and as much or as many times as you boil it, after 'tis once finished,so much you make it worse instead of improving it, tho' you throw in fresh Colour, for you do not leave it half its strength, the other being evaporated.
Secondly, 'tis absolutely necessary to discover the just proportion of Galls and Vitriol, because too much Vitriol is of Worse consequence than an excess in Galls; the reason is plainly this, tho' as is sufficiently proved by the mentioned experiments, that 'tis utterly impossible to produce a Black Dye without Vitriol, yet it is true that too much of it renders the Suds Corrosive and sharp, wherefore the Black Dye by reason of its necessary corrosive ingredients is the most distructive to the Stuffes, and so when more Vitriol than is absolutely necessary, is used the Stuff is more Corroded than necessity obliges, and therefore the damage is greater on this side than on that of the Galls; for let a Dyer throw in a fourth part of a hundred weight of Galls to a quart of Vitriol the damage is not much, but a piece of Stuffs of twelve or thirteen Pound price is quickly so spoiled, by too much Vitriol; that the Threads are visible, and tears as soon as put upon the body, and 'tis here to be observed, that the Dyer will not be willing to make good the damage, any more than he will part with his Suds as long as a handful of Coperas will the least ferment it, wherefore by reason or the great Damage hereby accruing to fine Stuffs, 'twould not only be proper but absolutely necessary to decide the quantities by Experiments, and when once found, the Dyer ought to regulate himself according to that ever after, as our Author has in Article 193, 194. Upon which we ought to observe that the allowed variation of the quantities which he seems to hint at, is not to be understood of the two above mentioned principal Ingredients, but of the less considerable, which are used to a different end from the former, as the Blew Wood, Sumac, Rodoul, Fovic, and Yellow Wood, of which he speaks Article 189. I remember here what I have said above, upon the deepning the deepest Dye of Galls, that there were two things to be considered, which as soon as one is clear'd the other manifestly follows. And without doubt much more might be added, but some will be apt to say 'tis impossible to prescribe the just proportions of Galls and Vitriol, by these or more experiments, so certainly as to pass into a Rule, because of the great difference there is in the goodness of the several sorts of both Materials, but especially of the latter, for which reason I exprest myself a little particularly above, viz., (THE GALLS AND VITRIOL YOU MAKE THE EXPERIMENT WITHAL) and farther I own that the difference is so great, that it would cause a great alteration in the Dyes, and that so much that it is better to continue in the old way, than in the least to found a decisive prescription upon this Experiment.
Galls are the most useful and common Materials in Dying the Black Dye. Sumach tho' not so frequently used, is to be valued for rendering the Dye soft and delicate, which is otherwise harsh and untractable from the Rough and Astringent Nature of the Vitriol or Coperas and the Galls: but our Author ascribes this softening quality to the Blew or INDIAN Wood, Article 29, and to the Yellow Wood also. Verdigrease is wholly useless and may be omitted, because it contributes nothing to the chief Dye. Alder Bark is not of any great use as to giving a Colour, but mixt with Cutlers or Smiths Dust it softens the harsh Dye, and besides that, it Dyes every thing, and is a right Hair and Silk Dye, especially to be valued for its softning quality as above, in which it may be rank'd with INDIAN Wood, and is common in the Blew Dye, which is assistant to the Black; this Ingredient it self is of a Colour inclining to Black. Smiths Dust and filings are not useful, but are attended with the Ill qualities above mention'd, for which reason the following receipt gives us but a very ill Black Dye, viz. To one Pound of Stuff put a handful of Iron filings, a handful of Alder Bark; The raspings of Brasil Wood and Vitriol, of each half a Pound, Verdigrease half an Ounce, and of Gum one Ounce, let them boil together half an Hour, then put the Stuff into it and let it continue an hour therein with the Liquor hot, but not boiling, when it is cool put it in again, and so repeat the process to the third and fourth time. This process would be much better'd if the filings and Verdigrease were omitted, and the Brasil raspings at least one half diminished, and an Ounce or more of Galls added instead of it. Gum may also be omitted and kept till they come to the press, wherefore the following Process is much better, viz. R. Galls two Pound, Alder Bark two Pound, Yellow-wood Chips or Saw Dust 1 Pound and half, let it boil three hours, after which take out the Stuff and cool it, then add Sal Armoniac one Ounce and half, and let it boil one Hour, take it out cool and cleanse it, and you will find it Dyed a fine Black. Note in this Dye the quantity of Galls may be diminished, and that of Alder Bark encreased, or the contrary upon occasion: That the Yellow Wood Chips may be diminished, and in the room thereof INDIAN Wood, or which is better Woad may be substituted. Madder or Bresslaw Red a quarter of a Pound may also be added, Sumach is very proper in the Process, but it is usual to substitute the infusion of Blew or INDIAN Wood in its place: To conclude 'twould be better to use the Blew infusion in the first Suds instead of Yellow Wood, or at least half of it, because tho' the latter throws the Dye upon the Stuff very well, yet it doth not like the former deepen the Black, as well as fix the Dye upon the Stuff. A Black may also be produced from the Alder Bark, with the addition of Sumach or Infusion of INDIAN Wood or both together. 'Tis certainly best to Dye the Black upon a Blew Ground, and next that upon a Red.
The Dyers have several ways of glazing Blacks and other Dyes, but that does not belong to this place, wherefore so much for the five simple Colours.
The Four first simple Colours, viz., the Blew, Red, Yellow and Brown, may be compared to the four Elements, the three first to the Transparent and Lucid, and the last to the Opacity of the Earth; so Black may be compared to Night and Death, not only because all other Colours are deepened and buried in the Black Dye, but that as Death puts an end to all Evils of Life, 'tis necessary that the Black Dye should remedy all the Faults of other Colours, which have been occasion'd by the deficiency of the Dyer, or the Dye, or the change of Fashion according to the times and Caprice of Men.
Wherefore it is not reasonable nor advantagious to the publick, that a Stuff which is rendred unsaleable on the Account of its Dye, should remain in the Warehouse a Prey to Moths and Vermin, when it may easily be sold if Dyed Black. 'Tis therefore necessary to permit the Dying of Stuffs of faded or old Fashioned Colours Black or darker than their former Colours, and make provision for their Dying and finishing in the most proper manner, for the goodness and beauty of the Dye, and the lasting or wearing the Stuffs themselves.
To arrive at this end, 'tis necessary to consider the first Ground of the Dye, in order to Dye and finish it well in the Second, whether the first Ground is alone sufficient to perfect the Black; for instance if the Colour or ground be a Pale Blew it ought to be grounded or prepared to receive the Black Dye or Maddered if the goodness of the Stuff require it. If it be Red it ought to have the necessary Blew ground; if it be Yellow it requires a Blew or Blew and Red ground, if the goodness of the Stuff requires it, in order to produce the Black Dye.
If the Stuffe is of a Colour wherein the parts of the Walnut-tree have been used, and it hath been Browned without being boiled, care ought to be taken, that the Stuffe be not boiled in order to Madder it, because the acrimony of the Allom will harden the Wool in the Bath, and dispose them to burn by reason of the acrimony of the first Dye; but in this case we ought to content our selves with well Woading them, after having passed the Stuffes through two or three old or weak Suds, or such as have been used, to soften them, and discharge as much as possible the harshness of the first Dye, whereas the good Bath or strong Suds would spoil the Stuffes; which being Woaded according to this manner become limber and pliable, and the Dye thereby rendred sufficiently lasting.
'Tis of great importance to know the nice way of managing the Black Dye, to be given to Stuffes which have before received their Dye, from Corrosive Ingredients, and to take particular care that they be not boiled in Galls or Black Suds, but to the end that they may the better receive their Colour they must be Dyed cold; the Galls, Sumach and INDIAN Wood ought to be first boiled together, and after the fire under the Copper is extinguished, the Stuffes ought to be put in and left to be Galled without any fire, stirring them from time to time for the space of Ten or Twelve Hours, after which they may be taken out and ventilated whilst the Suds are again heated, then the Stuffes ought to be put in again, managed and remain as long as before.
To make the Stuffes Black after they are taken out of the Suds and ventilated, the same Bath or Suds ought to be heated again, and so put in afresh INDIAN Wood which hath been boiled apart and left to cool for 3 or four dayes, and the Suds being hot enough then the Coperas should be put in, which ought to be left to dissolve very well and incorporate with the other Drugs; after which the Fire should be extinguish'd or removed, and the Stuffes put in and stirred pretty well at the beginning to unite the Dye, as also afterward from time to time for the space of 24 Hours; after which they may be taken out and aired, whilst the Bath is reheated a little, that they may be put in again, and remain the same time if not longer. The Suds had much better be too cold than too hot, and Galls and INDIAN Wood should by no means be used too sparingly, that the Stuffes may be rendred softer and more pliable: Yellow Wood is also very good for these sorts of Blacks.
Verdigrease may be used in order to make the INDIAN Wood take the better in the Black; but if too much be put in, or the Suds be suffered to boil too much in the reheating, the Stuffes are thereby rendred stiff and Gummy. The experienced Dyer may use it effectually, and the others may be informed by reading these two Articles, which will both point out the evils, and their remedies. These sorts of Black Dyes are Galled and Blacken'd better in a Wooden Fat than a Copper or Caldron, which in this case serves only to boil the Drugs, and reheat the Suds.
But because several may make use of this expedient to deprive the Stuffes of their necessary grounds, and to make a Redyed Stuffe pass for a Colour Dyed according to the Rules; 'tis necessary that the great Dyer, should leave a little Rose Mark of the Colour which the Stuffe was of, before it was begun to be redyed, and the lesser Dyer should be obliged also to leave another of the Colour of the good ground which the Great dyer sent to him before it was Galled, and Blackned; so that if this Stuffe hath a little White Rose Mark it may also be left after it hath received the Woad and Madder Grounds of the good Dye, for a more ample justification of the goodness of the ground which was given it.
Those Black Stuffes which are seized and condemned or fined for not having been regularly Dyed, and ordered to be redyed, cannot be Woaded or Madder'd, without a very sensible injury to them and the Dye, and being once Galled they cannot be regalled without hardning the Stuffes and preventing their well wearing and lasting.
But to the end that the Stuffes may be Dyed as fine and good a Black as is possible without injuring them or cheating the Publick, 'twill be necessary to boil a good quantity of INDIAN Wood three or four Hours long, and having cooled the Suds, to put into them a third part less of good beaten Galls than INDIAN Wood, and a very little Sumach : reboil it three Hours together, after which having again coold the Bath put in a little Coperas which ought to be left to dissolve very well and incorporate with the rest ; after which removing the Fire from under the Copper, dissolve a little Verdigrease in the same Suds, after all which the Stuffes may be put in and stirred, raised, ventilated, and the Dye reheated as specified above in the Articles 198 and 199. The Wooden Fats are also more proper for these redyings of Blacks, than Caldron or Coppers, and in case of deficiency of Sumach RODOUL and Fovic may be used, as may also Yellow Wood.
There are three things in the present manner of Dying Wool Black, which injure it, harden it, hinder its Combing and render it inflexible to the Spinner, and occasion the wasting of near twice as much in the spinning and combing.
The first is the Walnut tree ground that is given to the Dye, which gives beginning to these ill effects.
The second is too great quantity of the Coperas that is required to be used, for want of adding Woad which augments them.
And the third is, letting it boil too much either in the Galling or Blackning wherein no INDIAN Wood hath been used, which makes the Black take better: for this finishes them.
The Proper ways to remedy those evils, and to have Wool Dyed in perfection without being hardened by the first Ground, by the Gallage, or by the tinging Black, are:
First, in lieu of Walnut-tree Ground, which hardens the Stuffes, the Woad Ground which softens the Stuffes, should be used stronger or weaker in proportion to the fineness or coarseness of the Wool, or the price of the Stuffes in which it is to be used.
Secondly the Galls ought to be very well boiled with Sumach, or for want of that with RODOUL or Fovic, and after having put in INDIAN Wood which hath been boiled apart, the Wools ought to be put in, giving them but a moderate heat, but keeping them a long time in the Gall'd Liquor without boiling, because boiling will felt the Wool, after having taken out the Wool and aired it, put to the same Liquor the INDIAN Wood with a very little Verdigrease and one third or half less of Coperas than usual, then put in the Wools again, keeping them a long time in these Black Suds, taking them out and airing them twice, taking care that they have but a very gentle heat, and by this means you will have a very fine soft Black, and the Wool will be render'd flexible, its grain fine, and the flocks and waste will not in the least be augmented. This sort of Black Dye will preserve the Wool and keep the Money in FRANCE.
Wools designed for mixture before they are Dyed the Grounds of the Stuffes, wherein they are designed to be mixed, need not have a Colour so lively and bright as that of the Stuffes, that the Dye may be rendered as cheap as possible, without prejudicing its goodness : 'Tis necessary that all Reds of fine or midling Wools which are used to be Dyed with Brasil should be done with Madder, which is not much dearer than the former, which is a bastard Colour.
The Violet Dove Colours, Purple, Pansy, Flax Blossom, silver Grey, and such like Colours, in Wools for mixture accustomed to be Dyed with INDIAN Wood and Brasil, or Woad and Brasil should be Woaded according to their respective sortments of Colours, with Woad and Indigo, or with the slight Woad and Indigo, then boiled with Allom and Tartar (the Greys but half so long as the other) and afterwards Cochinealed with the slighter sort or wild Cochineal, and to lower the Price yet more; the Suds may be augmented with as strong a Madder Ground as they can bear: according to Article 48 of this Instruction.
Woad should rather be used in conjunction with Madder than in conjunction with Wild Cochineal in Grey and Walnut tree Dyes, for high priced Wools for mixture, because the reddish tincture which the Madder gives them will serve for an introduction to the Walnut-tree Dye as well as that the Dye will be as good and cheaper; but if the Colour should be Red, a little Wild Cochineal ought to be used, to sort the Colours to their proper Mixture.
For Tawnies, Dry Rose, Amaranthus and other the like Colours, of the same Mixture, in fine or midling Wools for Mixtures; 'tis necessary to Woad them with both sorts of Woad and Indigo, after which they should be boiled with Allom and Tartar, then Madder'd with good Madder, and at last passed through a Wild Cochineal Suds; if the great Dyers rebate in the Woad, Copper doth not sufficiently redder the Colour to adjust it to its sortment.
It is unnecessary to speak of the Greys prepared with Galls and Coperas, or the Browns made with the several parts of the Walnut tree, because the small rebate of Madder or Cochineal which the greater Dyer may use in his remaining Suds, in order to produce the desired Colour, cannot sensibly augment the price of their Dye. But all sorts of Dyers, Clothiers or Makers of stuffes, ought to be forbidden the use of Lime-quick Ashes in Wall-nut tree Dyes, to redden and augment the Colour of Browns, because it hardens and burns the Wools and stuffes.
It ought to be lawful for the Greater Dyers who have attain'd any secret, or particular Method to diminish the price of Dyes for fine and midling Wools for Mixtures, without injuring the Wool or altering the goodness of the Dye or improperly suiting the sortment of Colours, to make use of it after they have made appear of what advantage it is, and obtained permission provided they don't use therein INDIAN Wood, Brasil, or ORSEILLE - or other Drugs prohibited in Dying fine or midling Wools for Mixture.
Coarse Wool or those used in Mixtures of Stuffes not exceeding 30 Sols the Ell, ought to be Dyed according to the Ground of those lower prized Stuffes wherein they are to be mixed, that the Dye may not be too dear; but justly suited to their worth: namely all the Greys and Walnut tree Dyes ought to be Dyed with Galls, Coperas, Walnut-tree root, INDIAN Wood, and ORSEILE, according to Article 74. The Violet, Dove Colours, Purple, Flax and the like Colours, with Woad, Allom, Tartar, Wild Cochineal and Madder; according to Article 211. The Tawnies, Dry Rose, and Amaranthus Colours, with Woad, Allom, Tartar, and Madder, according to Article 213. But in Violets, Dove Colours, Flax and Aramanthus, Tawny, Dry Rose and the like Colours, in slight Stuffes and spun Wools of a very low price, to reduce the price yet lower ; Flock or ORSEILE Suds may be used according to Article 52 and 72. But it doth not follow from hence, that they should be used in Wools for Mixture which ought to be Dyed according to Article 111 and 113.
We ought to be inform'd that by Woading, ought to be understood the tinging Wool or Stuffes Blew, and that tho' Woad seems only to be hinted at in the word, yet the best Woad, slight Woad, and Indigo mixt together is to be understood according to the Articles 8, 9, 10, 11. As under the term of Galling or Engalling besides Galls, Sumach, RODOUL and Fovic is comprehended, tho' one is more proper for some colours than the other; also under Walnut-tree Dyes only is meant the Dye prepar'd from the Bark and leaves of the tree, and the Nut-shells, which are three Ingredients proceeding from the same Tree and all serving to the Brown Dye.
The Proof Suds being the Tryal which discovers the goodness or falsity of the Dye, as the refining Pot the finess, do's alloy or baseness of Metals, and it being impossible to justify the Colours before they are repared, 'tis necessary in the last place, to insert the Proof Suds into this Instruction. To the End that having already been inform'd of Drugs necessary to the perfecting of Dyes, by the Proof Suds, we may ennabled to pass a solid judgement of their goodness or falsity.
Though the Proof Suds are used for the justification of the Ground of a Black Stuffe, the proof is not so evident nor so easy as by the little Rose Marks, the sight of which alone shews the Strength or weakness of the Ground, which hath been bestowed on the Stuffes, as it is specified in Article, 107, &c.
The good Woad Ground well applyed to a Stuffe being finished to a Black, looses nothing in the proof Suds, and the Madder very little, so that though the dose may be augmented for the Blew, yet we ought to content ourselves in order to make it uniform, with using sufficient quantity of Starch Water, Allom and Tartar as much of each, as the Black Patterns, which you would prove do weigh.
This being done, boil the Patterns half an hour in the Starch Water with the above mentioned quantity of Allom, and Tartar, and the Black Patterns which have been Woaded to an Aldego or Pearl Blew, will become Blewish inclining to the Green Brown or Olive, the First darker than the last: But if they are Woaded, one will become of a Clove Brown and the other darker than Princes Colour.
Those Patterns which have been Woaded to the Kings Blew, or TURKISH Blew, being proved in the same manner, will become of Green, Brown or Olive Colour; tho' brighter and more inclining to the Green, than the above mentioned: but those which have only been Woaded to a Sky Colour, will turn to a slight sort of Blew enclining to Olive Green, and those which have had the mignion or faint Blew, will come out of a Goose-turd Green.
Patterns of Black Stuffes neither Woaded nor Maddered, boiled in the same manner, will not in the least incline to Green, but become of a Colour betwixt Yellow and Brown.
The Patterns of Black Stuffes which have been Woaded, and afterwards Walnut-tree Grounded instead of being Madder'd, being boiled as above, have no real lustre of Red, but become of a sort of Olive Colour'd Bear Grey, more or less dark or encllining towards a Red according as more or less Woad or Walnut tree hath been used; but if they have not been Woaded at all but only Walnut-tree Dyed, they will become of a Musk or deep Nutt Colour.
But because the Patterns may change Colour more or less in the proving, as well by the Strength of the Drugs of the Galled Ground, as the black afterwards given to it, or by the boiling it self, which may in some measure disenable us to give a perfectly decisive determination concerning the goodness or badness of the Dye ; 'tis necessary for an entire justification to take one of the Prooves Master Pieces, or Patterns out of the Hall, to boil with the suspected pattern, to the end that both being boiled together we may be better enabled to judge of the goodness or badness of the Dyes, by comparing one with the other.
'Tis not sufficient to make appear by the Proof Bath whether the Woad Ground only, or the Woad and Madder ground be justly given to Black Stuffes by the Great Dyer, if by another Proof Bath we cannot examine, whither they are well Gall'd and Blacken'd with the necessary Drugs by the lesser Dyer, according to the proper quantities regulated in Article 193.
And tho' there is not always occasion for a Proof boiling to examine; as well because they may be judged by the Eyes and handling the Stuffe, still comparing them with the Proof Patterns, which have received the same Ground according to Article 194. Nevertheless if the Eyes be not sufficient and the Black is doubtful, a half Proof Bath ought to try them; which is made with a sufficient quantity of Starch Waters, and Allom, and Tartar, half the Weight of the Patterns in question and the Master proof Pattern: which ought to be boiled with it for the space half an hour, to the end that after boiling they may be compared together.
But if this Proof Bath is yet too strong, it discharges the Black of the Master Proof Patterns as well as the other; it ought to be weakned by retrenching yet one half of the Allom, and Tartar, and halving the time also, boiling it but a quarter of an Hour.
Blew if the Dye be good never looses its Colour: it may be proved in the same manner, and with the same quantity of Drugs, with the Black in Article 221 & 222. And if it changes or sensibly looses its Colour, 'tis a sign the Dye was bastardized.
Cochineal not adhering so well to the Stuffe as Blew, the Colours Dyed by it ought to be boiled, with one quarter part of the Weight of the Patterns, Allom and a like quantity of Tartar, and permitted to boil but half a quarter of an Hour.
For the examining of all sorts of other Colours, to know the Ground, we ought to put in equal quantities of Allom, as well as Tartar, to the Weight of Patterns, and to let them boil half an hour; and in all sorts of Prooving Baths, the Master Proof Pattern ought to be put in to boil together with the other, that by comparison we may be better enabled to judge of the goodness or falseness of the Dye.
But because there are several Colours which tho' good, cannot bear the entire boiling exam- ination, 'twill be proper to cut off a little bit of every Pattern as well as off the Master Proof Pattern when they have been boiled but a quarter of an Hour, to compare them together, and if they appear exactly alike the remainder of the Patterns may boil the other quarter of an Hour, that by the comparison of them together, and with the Master Proof Pattern, we may the better judge of the goodness or falsity of the Dye: This method ought to be used in all sorts of Proof boilings, for greater precaution.
It being not less necessary to examine whether midling and high prized mixt Stuffes are of good Colours, than whither they are as long and broad as they ought to be. It would be very proper, to prevent the intelligence which may be established betwixt the makers, Dyers and Merchants, to falsify the Dyes of Wools for Mixture, that they be carried to the Hall after being fulled, in order to examine their length and breadth, the goodness or falsity of their Colours should also be examined, which if suspected may be easily done, by a Proof boiling of part of the mentioned ingredients, viz., less of Allom and Tartar than the Weight of the Patterns, and letting it boil half a quarter of an hour, but if the ground of Blacks in the Wool in the Mixture is to be examined, the weight of the Drugs and time of boiling should be doubled: and if the Colours prove good, they may be sealed with a seal with the name of the Town, and the Maker, and the Words, GOOD DYING FOR MIXTURE, or B0NNE TEINTE POUR MELANGE, in FRENCH; but if they are found of a bastard Dye, they ought to be handled as other false Dyed Stuffes, because they are not less prejudical than they.
Observations on the Tenth Part.
THE Title of this part contains its just Contents, viz., of Redying those Stuffs which lye upon the Traders Hands, because their Dye is either not good, or out of Fashion ; and afterwards of the Proof boilings, in order to examine the Goodness of the Dyes. As for the Redying Stuffes you have Article 195, the conveniency, Article 196, the reasonableness, Article 197, &c. the necessary Care to be taken in the performance of the Work, So that I shall recommend what our Author hath said to the Memory, Experience and Consideration of the Ingenious, Article 197, we are informed that if the present Colour of the Stuffes to be Redy'd, is not one of the Grounds for Black, viz., Red or Blew, they must first have the proper Grounds bestowed on them, in order to produce a good Black. What is offer'd in Article 198 concerning Stuffs, which have before received a harsh and rough Dye, as Walnut-tree Brown, ought to be very well observ'd, What follows, Article 199, being Instructions concerning the Redying of those Stuffes before Dyed with corrosive Materials, is not only advantagious but absolutely necessary to be considered, and what Rules are afterward given for the Dying of Wool, to Article 220, but what follows wants explanation in order to a thorough Knowledge of them. The Author asserts, Article 230, that the proof boiling discharges the Black Dye, if the salt Materials be used in too great a quantity, or the Master proof Patterns too long boiled, or if there be an excess in both the quantity and operation; 'tis not here to be understood that the Black Colour in its whole Substance is attracted by the proof Suds, so that the Stuff should remain white, but that its Colour is hereby changed, as Article 226, we are told they will change to a Colour betwixt Yellow and Brown: by Article 222 we are informed that the proof boilings prove the Blew unchangeable, which is confirmed in Article 231, nor is the Madder Red much damaged or changed by the proof Suds; from all which we may deduce the Fundamental Reasons of the Proof Suds, if we consider, First, That the proof boiling turns the Colour to a Brown Yellow, if the Black have had no other Ground than its own Dye: Secondly on the other side if it hath had a Blew Ground the proof changes the Pattern to an Olive Green, and it is very well known that Yellow and Blew produce a Green, which may be turn'd to Olive Colour by mixing it with Brown. Thirdly, If the aster Patterns have had both the Woad and Madder Ground, they will change to a Yellowish Brown which may be produced by mixing Blew and Red, as Article 49, we are informed the Minime or Deep Tawny, and a lighter Colour call'd Princes Colour, remain after the proof according to Article 223.
'Twill not I hope be labour lost to inculcate the Authors two Observations concerning boiling Proofs, the first that the Rose Marks are more certain indications of the Dye, as in Article 221. Secondly, That as in Article 227. The Master Pattern should be put into the proof boiling, with the other Patterns, that by comparison we may be enabled to make a better judgments than by sight alone can ever be made.
THE General Rules of AUGUST the 13th, 1669, being extensive enough, and having sufficiently provided for the Dying of Thread and Linnens, whether made of Flax, Hemp or Cotton, 'twill be unnecessary to speak of it here but though the same General Rules, and a very particular as well as useful and judicious instruction, (afterwards drawn up) how to Dye Silk a light Black, and to prevent the common surcharge of Galls used in Silks; an abuse very prejuicial to the Publick, seen to have given the last stroke to good Silk Dying; it will be nevertheless yet necessary to preserve the mutual trust and justice of Commerce, and to cause us to put a true value upon Silks of good Colours; and since the slighter Colours often seem and are so more beautiful and bright, than the true Crimsons, 'tis necessary (I say) they should be distinguish'd by some Mark, to prevent the publick from being defrauded.
In order to which it would be necessary, to forbid all sorts of Merchants or Silk-men to sell, expose to sale, or distribute any raw Silk for Crimson, which (besides the ordinary Mark,) is not marked at the end of the skain, or at the Ribbon that hangs at the end, with a lead containing on one side the sellers name, and on the other CRAM0ISY, i.e., Crimson, with the Name or Cypher of the Town, where it was Dyed, that if the Silk be ill Dyed, the Buyer may have recourse to the Merchant that sold it ; and as to the Merchants having remedy of the Dyer, he ought to take care as soon as the Silk comes out of the Dye-house, that it be Viewed, Examined, and Marked in the Court or Hall appointed to this purpose.
And a precaution with respect to Silk stuffes being no less necessary, since the shining lustre of an ill Dye, causes it often to be preferred to a good one, through the ignorance of those who buy it for wearing; 'twill be farther necessary to forbid all Mercers, Weavers, and Silk Manufacturers, to sell, expose to sale or distribute any Silk Stuffes for Crimson, which are not also besides the ordinary Mark, first mark'd at one or both ends (if the piece is to be cutt) with a leaden Mark, containing on one side, the Name of the Merchant that gave the Silk to be Wove into Stuffe, and on the other Word, CRAMOISY, i.e., Crimson, with the Name or Cypher of the Town, where it was made; to the end that if the Stuffe be not of the right Crimson Colour, the buyer may have his remedy against the dealer, who caused it to be made and sold it.
And because the Pale Blew's are more beautiful, and don't so much encline to Green, or Grey, when they are Dyed in a Woad Fat or Copper, as when they are Dyed in the Indigo Copper, according to Article 10, it will be necessary to leave the Silk-Dyers to their liberty, whether they will Dye their Pale Blew's, in the Great Cloth Dyers Copper, (paying them for it) or in their own Indigo Coppers, as they shall judge it proper, with respect to the Mixtures of their Colours.
It being necessary that the Dying of Hatts, should be as good as that of Stuffes, it very well deserves a regulation, especially the Black for Hatts of value, which the Hatters at present Dye so slightly, that the Colour will not last one third part of the wearing, without turning of a Tawny or Black Grey, to the great disadvantage of the consumer, who is obliged to buy two or three Hatts, where one would be sufficient if well Dyed; and this is the cause that twice as much money is expended, in the buying of Lambs Wool, Ostrich Down or Hair, Camels Hair, PERUVIAN Sheeps Wool and other Foreign Commodities, of which all fine Hatts are made; which draws several considerable summes of Money out of the Kingdom; when the good dying of Hatts, would at least keep one half of the Money in the Kingdom, and of consequence lower the price of those Commodities in the places which produce them.
Before we attempt to fix the well Dying of Hatts, 'twill be necessary to view and examine with the Hatters, upon the spot, the Commodities, and inconveniences of the Countries The Hairs, the Wools, and Lambs Wools, which are there produced, the Herbs, Roots, Drugs, and Ingredients which grow there, and which may be very useful, as well to the making as Dying, and better wearing of Hatts; the laws and orders of every Town; in order to reduce the Manufactures of Hatts to the utmost perfection, and cause a value to be set upon FRENCH Hatts, and a demand for them in Forreign Countries, where the bad Dying or ill making hath at present ruined the trade in them: and upon this examination and a report of it, a General Rule may be made for the future, which should be as a Law to all the Hat-makers in the Kingdom, and tend very much to their advantage and the publick good.
But because it is necessary in the mean while to put a stop to the present Course of Ill-dying of Hatts, and to discover and correct the abuses, and at the same time instruct the Hat-makers that are ignorant of the Drugs necessary to, and the manner of Dying a good Black, which is the Colour most in use, and most important in Hats; and it being farther necessary to assist them by these helps to make a compleat discovery of what may yet be deficient in that Manufacture, that it may be established throughout the Realm; we ought to be informed.
To Dye a Hat (made either of Wool or Hair) of a good Black Colour, 'tis necessary to Gall it very strongly, with ALEPPO or ALEXANDRIAN Galls, and a very little INDIAN Wood, and let it by very long galling, that the Dye may the better penetrate the felt, and after that in the same Bath to give it a very good Black, with a sufficient quantity of INDIAN Wood, Coperas and a little Verdigrease, letting them continue long enough in the Dye, that it may penetrate the Deeper. But the last mentioned INDIAN Wood ought to be boiled apart before, and set cooling at least 3 or four dayes before using. The quantity of Galls and INDIAN Wood ought to be augmented in proportion as the Hatts or Hair, more easily or hardly imbibes the Tincture.
And a small time after, a New Bath of clean Water ought to be prepared, in which ought to put in cold, a sufficient quantity of INDIAN Wood and a little Yellow Wood; boiling them together for three hours, and when it is cold enough, a sufficient quantity of beaten Galls should be added and a little Yellow Wood; boiling them together for three hours, and when it is cold enough, a sufficient quantity of beaten Galls should be added, which must be boiled three hours longer with the INDIAN and Yellow Woods; after which put in the Coperas, and then the Hatts; and the Bath being a little cooled, a little Verdigrease should be dissolved in it, to make the INDIAN Wood take the better, and the Hatts ought to be left a long time in this second Black, that the Dye may sufficiently enter them.
But if the Hatts are of a price, and the Hair difficult to take the Black Dye, we ought to give them a third Black, which must be prepared the same way as the second, in the precedent Article; with this difference, that in the Third the quantity of Ingredients may be augmented or diminished, as occasion or the goodness of the designed Dye requires; and if the luster of the Hat glances towards the Blew, a little more Yellow Wood should be added; as if it inclines to the Red, the Yellow Wood should be retrenched, and the INDIAN Wood as well as the other Drugs, should be augmented, according as the one hath prevailed over the other in the two former Blacks.
The Hatts being well rinced and cleans'd from the black, you may yet abate their Blewish Lustre, if occasion requires, and soften them with a slight Bath of Yellow Wood, which being naturally a little Gummy, will have a very good effect upon the Hat, if it be either of fine Wool or Hair.
Prized Hats made of Course Wool may be sufficiently Dyed in the first Black, provided they are well Galled and Blacked and a sufficient quantity of Sumach or RODOUL and Fovic be used, and the quantity of Coperas be augmented without diminishing the rest ; the midling sorts of Hatts cannot be sufficiently Dyed without two blacks, any more than the finest, and the most difficult to receive the Dye, can be finished without three, as specified above in the Article 245.
As the finest Hatts and the midling sort, may be rebated and softned with Yellow Wood, so those made of Course Wool having no need of a rebate of the Blewish or Reddish Tincture, by reason of the Sumach or RODOUL and Fovic, as well as the larger quantity of Coperas used to Dye them, yet may be softned with a slight Bath of SPANISH Broom, if the Hatter would not rather pass them through a Yellow Wood Bath, after the fine or midling Hatts have extracted its substantial Virtue, which is not absolutely necessary for the rebate of low prized Hatts.
But tho' Black cannot be Dyed to the last perfection either in Wool or Hair without Woad, the Hatters have quite left off their accustomed use of it in the Dying of Hatts, and believe at the same time, that too strong a Black makes the Hairs or Nap fall off, which is very necessary for the sale and beauty of the Hatts, though this rather proceeds from the hand of the Workman that dresses them than in Dying them, or the Hairs not being sufficiently fulled, or strongly enough united to the felt; for a good Black well applyed never produces this ill effect, but on the contrary contributes very much to the sale and as much to the well wearing as the Hair of the Hat.
Now to remove this obstacle, and to Dye Hatts in perfection, 'twould be necessary to oblige all Hatters to cause all their Wools or Hairs to be Woaded according to their goodness, before they are used in the making of Hatts, because the Blew very much covers and disposes the Wool and Hairs the better to receive the Black, tho' they are not obliged to allow so strong a Dye to course and midling Hatts, preserving the last for the finest sort only where the Hair doth not receive the Colour so easily : all which observed, the price of Dying a Course Hat will not be above 3 pence and the finest not above 5 pence.
It will be proper in order to the putting a stop to the course of ill Dying of Hats, and at the same time to have them perfectly well Dyed and made, strictly to forbid all Master Hat Makers to cut off the brims of their Hats, or expose them to sale before they are mark'd with their Mark on the inside, and viewed and examined by the Wardens or jury of Hatters, who finding them regularly good, should be obliged to express their approbation by a Mark on one side of that of the maker; but if they find them ill-Dyed they should be obliged to seize them, and cause them to be confiscated by the judges of Manufactures, and a fine to be laid upon the Hatters who have caused them to be ill Dyed.
And if a Hat be found to be ill Dyed, tho' it hath the Marks of both the Hatter and the Warden, it would be necessary that the seller should be obliged to make good the Damage to the buyer, and have his remedy as well against the Hatter that made it, as against the Warden that marked it, and cause them to be fined besides, to oblige them to take particular care that they don't mark Hats which are ill Dyed. CCLIII.
But that the Examination of the Dying of Hatts, may be made with some sort of certainty, every Corporation or Company of Hatters should be obliged in each Town, or City, to Dye two, four, or six Hat-felts more or less, according as the Company shall judge necessary, of every sort of Wool or Hair, of which Hatts are made in that Town, of the three several sorts of Black abovementioned, to be kept in their Halls, to serve for Master-pieces or Patterns to have recourse to, the better to enable them to judge, of the good or ill Dying of Hatts.
And if 'tis impossible to judge of the goodness of the Dye of those Hatts to be examined at sight, by comparing them with the Master Patterns, the Wardens or jury who have the right of Marking, ought to take a little piece of the Master felt, which is made of the same Wool and Dyed the same Colour with those they would examine, and another which they may cut off the brim of the Hat in question, so that it doth not prejudice the Hat, or spoil its roundness, and boil them together, with just as much Allom and Tartar, as the weight of the Patterns for half an Hour, after which process they may determine by comparison, concerning the faults which may be committed in the Dye.
And tho' this Examination is not the utmost certainty, yet it being the most exact of any yet known, it will be sufficient to put a stop to this Evil, and to distinguish by the mark, the good and well Dyed Hats, from those which shall be bad or ill made: But 'tis also necessary that the name of the Town, and a particular Cypher for every Year, should be contained in the Wardens mark, which should also be printed in the Companies Book, that the Action may lye against those who shall commit any abuse of the mark; and in the Hatters Mark also his name should be set in short, that every thing relating hereto, may be well known and clearly distinguished.
Annotations on Part XI.
THIS Part containing nothing of the Art of Dying, but what relates to its application to Hats, and in Article 240, the Causes of the writing of it; namely, the scandalous abuses crept into by the Fraud of Hat-makers and Sellers: 'Tis worth considering whether the same complaint may not justly be made in our own Country and whether consequently our Authors Advice be not as necessary as plain and extensive, and indeed needs no explication.
IT being impossible to produce good Colours without good Drugs, and FRANCE being capable of furnishing the best, if its fertility was seconded by our Labour and Industry: 'Tis necessary after having taught the manner of preparing good Dyes, to lay down proper means which may contribute to the Trade of those good Drugs which FRANCE is capable of producing, that our people may apply themselves to the Culture of them, and reap those Advantages thereby, which strangers and our own blind stupidity have deprived us of from the beginning of this Century.
The Drugs which grow in FRANCE are the best and slighter sort of Woad for Blew, Chermes Berries and Madder for Red; SPANISH Broom, SARETTE and GENISTROLLE for Yellow; The Root and Bark of the Walnut-tree, and the Nutshel, for Brown, which may be otherwise called altogether Walnut-tree Colour, RODOUL, Fovic, and Coperas for the Black Allom, and Tartar for the boiling or Suds. We have also Verdigrease, common Salt, Lime, boiled Ashes and Pot-ashes, Tartar Ashes, and the most of those Ingredients, which in themselves afford no Colour; beside which, we have also the CASSENELLE or Galls which grow upon some Oaks; Alder-bark, FUSTEL, MALHERBE, TRENTANELLE and GAROUILLE ORSEILLE; which are Ingredients, the Use whereof may be permitted in some Towns, Stuffs and Colours; as before specified in this instruction.
Though no Country in EUROPE is SO well disposed to the production of Drugs necessary for Dying as FRANCE, yet nevertheless the Culture and Preparation of them hath been so neglected, that at present there are very few in this Kingdom skilful enough to know their Defects, or the way of re-establishing the good Culture of them, in order to give them the same Strength, Substance and Goodness which they were used to abound with, when the Culture of them was equal to their Consumption ; all which requires, that some room in this instruction should be taken up by the insertion of some Methods of knowing them, and preventing their Sophistication ; but that we may proceed with some sort of Method, 'twill be very proper to begin with Woad, it being the most profitable, most necessary, and best Drug used in Dying.
Woad is produced from a Seed sown annually about the beginning of MARCH, hath several Leaves like those of Plantain ; it grows in LANGUEDOC, in the Diocess of TOLOSE, S. PAOUL, MIREPAIX, LAVANT and ALBY; all under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of TOLOSE. It yields four Crops every Year which are good, and tho' the first is often better than the second, the second better than the third, and the third better than the fourth, the contrary sometimes happens when the spring is too wet and rainy at the time of gathering, and the other Seasons fall out more Temperate, Warmer and Dryer; too great humidity rendring the Leaves of Woad larger and thicker, and diminishing its Strength and Substance. This Plant may also be cultivated in several other Provinces of FRANCE, as may be seen by the slighter sort of it, which grows in NORMANDY, which is really a Species of the same.
Besides these four good Crops; some Husbandmen get a fifth and sometimes a sixth, commonly called MAROUCHINS. And tho' the fifth be sometimes found reasonably good, when the Autumn is hot and dry; the sixth is never good, or at best but very little, the Sun being then too low to ripen the Leaves and give it the necessary Strength and Substance.
There is scarce one peasant in these four Diocesses that doth not know when Woad is ripe, and when 'tis necessary to gather it. But some may perhaps be ignorant why the Leaf is sometimes suffer'd to Wither before it is brought to the Wheel to be ground; which is only to ripen it more, and evaporate a part of its Oleaginous juice which would spoil the goodness of the Woad: It is also left in the Mill-trough eight or ten Days, after it hath been ground very well, stopping the Vents and Crevices daily made for its Humidity to drop away.
After which, it is made into little Loaves, which are called Cocs or COCAIGNES, which they lay to dry in the shade upon Hurdles appointed to that end, near every Mill; from whence they are at last taken to lay up in a Store or Ware-house, till the owner is pleased to Pulverize them, which is commonly done in JANUARY, FEBRUARY or MARCH. CCLXIII.
The Woad being broken or thrashed with wooden Clubs, must be moistened with standing Water, which, provided it is not Foul or Muddy, is always best ; and after 'tis well wetted and mingled, in order that it may equally imbibe the Water ; then it ought to be stirred at least thirty six or forty times in the space of four Months to prevent its growing hot, and that the Water may equally penetrate it, after which, 'tis fit to be made into Balls, and used in Dying; tho' 'twere better to allow it a little age before it be used. For good Woad always augments in Strength and Substance, and if kept six or seven, nay ten Years it grows better.
In order to produce good Woad, the Season of the Year and Weather ought to be good and proper; The Earth must be well Cultivated, and howed and cleansed from Weeds; as must the Woad itself also. Light earth will never produce it, but the fattest and midling Lands yields the strongest and best Woad, which yields the most Colour, but the mixture of the one with the other agrees very well, and betters the Crop.
Tis not possible to have good Woad, if we do not sow good Seed; but that we may always have the best, we ought to be informed, that there are two sorts of Woad whose Seeds are very much alike, tho' their Leaves are different ;The good Woad hath close plain Leaves without any downy Hair, and the other, which is a bastard Woad, affords a downy or hairy Leaf, so that to have good Seed, care ought to be taken in Weed- ing the Woad, that all the bastard Woad be plucked up and thrown away, not being suffered to be near that which is to be kept for Seed; which by this means you may have pure and unmixed.
But if Rainy Weather causes, the good Woad to degenerate to the Bastard or Wild sort, as it turns Wheat to Tares; in howing the Weeds particular care must be taken that the good that is left be cleared from this sort ; by eradicating the bad, which otherwise will eat up the Substance of the good, and by weakning it, quite spoil it; and the Earth being loaded with these hairy Leaves very much hinders the goodness of the Woad.
Particular care ought to be taken not to gather Woad with Dew upon it; nor to mix any other Herbs amongst its Leaves: for nothing is really more contrary to its Nature, or can do it more hurt; because other Leaves yielding no Colour, attract that of the Woad, and consequently weaken it very much, as well as lessen its Substance.
Tho' the three first Crops are commonly the best, and that Woad prepared by a mixture of these three, is always best ; 'tis nevertheless necessary, that those who gather four Crops only should mix them together, because 'tis impossible to prepare the last well alone, there not being enough to make a heap sufficient to give it a proper heat.
But those who gather five Crops in a Year, when they have been favour'd with fine Weather, ought to make a separate heap of their fourth and fifth Crops mixt together, which ought to be sold for the slighter sort of Woad, without suffering it to be mixed with the Balls of that of the three other Crops; that the Dyer may use them alone or together according as it suits his convenience, without being cheated in the buying of it. But the sixth Crop ought to be absolutely forbidden, because it often serves only to eat up the Substance of the other.
The want of Consumption hath been the cause why the Culture of Woad has been left off: And the Inhabitants of the four Diocesses employing their Lands in sowing great Millet or Hirse and Tobacco, these two plants, which spread their Staulks like little Trees, and yield a prodigious quantity of large Grains or very large Leaves, have so exhausted the moisture and substance of the Land, that indeed at present there is not vigour left sufficient to produce a Woad strong enough to yield its accustomed quantity of Colour, as formerly, when the Lands were not impoverished by the mentioned two plants (and that they are is visible from the poor Crops of Corn,) on the contrary, the proper Culture of the Earth for Woad, renders the Lands abundantly more fertile and rich, for which reason, the upper LANGUEDOC is esteemed the best Land in the World.
Tho' the great fertility of the land of upper LANGUEDOC, and the profit which accrues to the Inhabitants by the Culture and Demand for Woad, hath justly fixed the Name of Cocaigne Lands (which is the name given to Woad before it is reduced to Powder) and made that Country the happiest and richest in EUROPE: 'Tis to be feared that having lost its Advantages and Richness for want of a demand for its Woad, it will for a long time at least loose its fertility, if the evil be not speedily remedied by preventing the Culture of so large quantities of Millet and Tobacco, which will utterly exhaust the Substance of their Lands; these two Plants being very improper to be cultivated in large quantities any where, besides the INDIES, where they have land enough in reserve, to let it rest after they have gather'd their Millet and Tobacco.
The weakness and slight Substance of Woad at present is owing to its want of proper Culture, negligence in its preparation, the little Care that is taken to separate the Leaves from those of the Wild Woad and other Weeds, and the inconsiderate mixture of the first Crop with the latter, to the sowing Woad where we have gathered Millet or Tobacco, to the small quantity of Woad that is produced, (for every one prepares it according to his own humour, and his heap being too little to preserve its heat, it cools and dryes, which occasions the loss of the greatest part of its Substance) and to this that for want of great heaps, the making of prooves by which its goodness is known, is neglected.
Besides these Evils which proceed from faults in the Culture, or curing, there is another, which is the Source and Encourager of the former, and which is owing to the Ignorance or ill Designs of some Dyers; who to engross to themselves in prejudice of their Brethren, all the Profits and Advantages, (which should come in common to the Dyers of the place) occasioned by Proofs of Woad, which they sell, or which is there sold; they suffer it to pass slighter than it ought, by agreement betwixt buyer and seller, one deceiving the other, and both defrauding the Publick, by giving a false report, and so making the Woad pass for better than it really is.
As the Buyers are cheated by these fraudulent Attestations, which cause them to buy Woad dearer than it is worth ; and those who fell into believing that the Deceit they have used, hath made it better than they expected : This reciprocal Cheat, when the Buyers discover it, makes them afraid to buy any more of a Commodity in which they cannot deal without loss, and which they can be otherwise inform'd of its goodness, than by the proof, which they will no longer rely upon; after they have found the Attestations false, and on the other side, the Sellers continue to falsifie or mix their Woad, hoping by Corruption to find Dyers, who shall still give it a false Attestation, when being frustrated, in their expectation, their Woad is decryed and sticks upon their Hands, they not being able to sell it.
If the Proofs and Attestations were made according to the Method prescribed by the Old Orders this abuse would never have grown to the pitch it now is; and Indigo would never have been so much used as 'tis at present in Dying, for every Man being inform'd by the Proof and true Attestation of the goodness of Woad, they would always endeavour to better it, since the price being proportioned to its goodness, would always encourage them so to do; and by this means finding its Faults, they would be enabled to Correct them for the future.
Tho' good Seed, good Husbandry, proper Culture and preparation, as well as fine Weather, augment or diminish the Strength and Substance of Woad ;They never alter the Colour, which is always good and the best and most necessary Ingredient for Dying, since 'tis used in the Composition of most Dyes, which can neither be rendred good or lasting without it; and indeed deserves our more particular Reflection.
'Tis not sufficient only that we instruct those who are ignorant in Husbandry, the Culture and preparation necessary to produce good Woad, and to give it the most Strength and Vigour possible, as well as re-establish its Commerce; But we ought to strike at the Root of the Evil, and put a stop to the fatal course of Cheating and Fraudulence. Now to succeed well in both, these several things are necessary.
First, That the Officer which shall be sent by the Surintendant of the Manual Arts, Commerce and Manufactures of FRANCE, should in the most convenient Town of that Country, call together an Assembly of the most intilligent Persons, which the Corporations of each Diocess of the four together shall depute, who in conjunction with him should in this Assembly prepare Statutes and general Orders for the Husbanding, Culture, Preparing, Prooves, Weights, Sale and just using of Woad; for the separation of the last Crops, the present value of Livres, which are in this case as Carrats to Gold and Silver, to adjust the goodness of Woad upon what Foot it should be established, the several Marks, Bails, according to the Crops or Degrees of goodness; for the Establishment of Inspectors in every Corporation or Parish, to regulate the Mills and all things in general, which they shall find necessary to be reformed: Which Statutes being prepared and signed by the Officer and the Deputies, or Magistrates of the Place, should be sent to the Superintendant of Manufactures, in order to be viewed, confirmed, corrected or approved; after which, they should serve as a standing Rule or Law.
Secondly, That two Inspectors or supravisors more or less (according as the place is great or small) should be chosen out of the most understanding Men thereabouts, who ought to be renewed every three Year in the beginning of JANUARY, and should be obliged every fifteen Days, or oftner, if necessary, to visit all the precinct depending upon that Corporation or Parish, in order to put the Statutes in execution: And if they find anything contrary to those Laws, they should draw up a report, and the Magistrates of the place, with the assistance of the Commissary to judge of it, if he happen to be near (they being obliged to call him to their assistance) before they proceed to condemnation, to the end that all things may be regularly managed, and not hurried on by Revenge or Spleen.
The said Supravisors should keep a Registir of all the Woad deliver'd, Crop by Crop, what sold, thrashed or beaten in their districts, as well as the Woad in Powder, which is prepar'd and sold. Of all which they should give a general Account every Year at the beginning of DECEMBER, to the Officer appointed to receive it - the Superintendant.
In the third place, 'twill be necessary that the Owners or Farmers of Mills should keep an Account of what Woad is brought to their respective Mills to be ground, Crop by Crop, of which they should be obliged to deliver a particular to the Supravisors every Month, who shall be obliged to insert it in their Register, in order to be delivered to the Commissary, as above.
Fourthly, That the jury of Dyers shallbe obliged to keep an Account of all the Proofs of Woad, which themselves as well as other Master Dyers have made, with the Day of the Month when they were done, the name of the Dyer who performed the Operation, and who it was made for, the owner of the Woad, and the adjudged degree of goodness ; and that the Dyer who made the Essay as well as the Jury of Dyers should be obliged to sign their names under the Article of every Essay in order that extracts may be delivered to the Buyers and Sellers, and any others to whom it shall be necessary.
The same ought to be practised, with respect to the Weighers and Packers, or makers up of the Bales of Woad, who should also be obliged to keep a particular of all the Woad, which they Weigh or Pack, the date, its goodness, the Buyer and Sellers name, the mark of the Bales, and the Places, Shops or Ware-houses, where they weighed or made up the said Bales. Which Accounts they as well as the sworn Dyers shall be obliged to deliver the State off Annually in the beginning of DECEMBER to the Deputy of the Surintendant.
In the fifth place, Experience having convinced us, that thro' the carelessness or the Ignorance of most people in those things which belong to the publick good: That Envy, Interest or Complaisance frequently cause them to be slighted and neglected at first, as not worth the thought, which is confirmed in Woad, the want of a Demand of which alone hath been the Occasion that upper LANGUEDOC hath lost above forty Millions of Livres since the beginning of this age which hath only happened by the neglect or Ignorance of proper means to prevent it, since our Kings, their Councel, the Parliaments, and States of the Province of LANGUEDOC have never been wanting in publishing Edicts and Ordinances to favour the Consumption of Woad, and prevent the use of Forreign Indigo in FRANCE; but all these have been ineffectual for want of the means mentioned in this Instruction.
It plainly appears that the Indigo which the SPANIARDS, GENOVESE, ENGLISH and HOLLANDERS have vended in FRANCE, hath hindred the sale and consumption of our own Woad: but we will not be perswaded that negligence in the Culture, and preparing it, hath contributed as much as the former, to ruin the Trade of it: And tho' the last Evil is but an effect of the first, yet 'tis impossible to remedy them both, without using such means as are proper for the one as well as the other, contained in this Instruction : Nor can we otherwise adjust the Interests of upper LANGUEDOC and the EAST INDIA Company, than by permitting the use of six Pounds of Indigo to every Bail of Woad, and strongly reiterating the prohibitions of the use of FOREIGN INDIGO, which will reduce the Indigo imposed by the FRENCH EAST-INDIA Company and Woad to about an equal consumption, and will be sufficent for all sorts of Dyers, which will be made good by their mixture; which would be impossible if the use of the Foreign Indigo be allowed, because our Woad being used in less quantity, will not be able to correct the FRENCH Indigo and the abundance of Foreign Indigo, which is continually used in vast quantities and bastardizes two thirds of our Colours, ruins our Trade, and the use of FRENCH Indigo as well as Woad.
Wherefore it seems necessary that the Surintendant of Manufactures should depute an Officer or Commissary on these occasions, that hath capacity and judgment enough to execute his Orders faithfully, and by virtue of them to call together the Assemblies of Diocesses, in order to draw up Statutes and Orders, and to cause them to be ratified afterwards by the Royal Council of Trade, that they may be put in Execution throughout the four Diocesses, and other places, where it shall be found necessary: And he should personally visit the places, to see whether the Supravisors Dyers, Millers, Weighers, Packers and other Persons discharge their Offices duly, and to keep a general Register of all the woad, which is gathered, sold and used in the four Diocesses annually; and lastly to have a general inspection over all that shall be judged necessary for improveing the Culture, Preparation, Use and Consumption of Woad.
VOUEDE or slight Woad, being a sort which grows in NORMANDY, but much weaker and less Substantial than the better sort of Woad, by reason of the poverty of the Soil and want of heat, where it is produced, which hinders the fermenting and ripening, necessary to give it the Strength and Substance to be found in the abovementioned first crops, for which reason, 'tis as weak and poor as the last Crops of LANGUEDOC. The Culture of this is exactly the same with the former, because they are both of the same Species, wherefore 'twill be unnecessary to dwell upon it; we'll only observe that the land being cold, the Woad very feeble, and the Crop very small, it ought to be but little moistened, and as much as possible used in conjunction with the better sort, that it may partake of the Substance of the latter, because otherwise it will be impossible to heat it, or use above a Pound of Indigo to a hundred weight of Woad, without Bastardizing the Dyes, or loosing time and Woad in endeavouring to heat it.
'Tis impossible to see the fertility of FRANCE and to see at the same time such a great number of idle unprofitable Wretches stand with folded Arms, whilst they might be usefully employed in the tilling of the Land, and other profitable uses, which kind nature Offers them ; to see them, I say, live at the expense of others sweat and blood, without blaming the civil conduct and negligence of the old FRENCH, and their Application to useless employments, and being used to puff up themselves with Wind and Smoak, which produced Whirlwinds and Tempests, which have hazzarded the overturning of the State by civil Wars.
What I have been saying is clearly confirmed by the Root of the Madder, which the Earth spontaneously produces in most of the Provinces of FRANCE, maugre the slight and negligence of the FRENCH. Is it possible to see this our tender Mother so liberally display and disperse her generous productions and Riches (to rouse us out of the lazy Sleep of Idleness, and excite her Children to Work) without censuring the blindness and Stupidity of our Nation, that suffers it self to be drained of its Money, to purchase these Commodities of Strangers, which they might gather at home in abundance.
From all which 'tis at present thought highly reasonable by our civil Government, to establish the Culture of Madder, the purchase of which Commodity, yearly exports above five hundred thousand Livres ; 'tis then inserted in this Instruction that the FRENCH may grow wiser, and learn to cultivate it in FRANCE and the FRENCH FLANDERS, and by this means furnish SPAIN, ITALY, and other Neighbouring Countries which want it.
Madder is a Root which grows Spontaneously in most places of the Kingdom, but carefully cultivated in FLANDERS and ZEALAND, and the best is to be found about LISLE ; and tho' this Root is very profitable, yet 'tis very easily cultivated and managed, and will be contented with an indifferent Soil, and is most plentifully produced in Land moderately moist, such as drained Fens, rather than in too dry Grounds; tho' 'tis also necessary to take care that the Water do not continue or stand upon the Land, because it putrifies the Madder, and renders its Culture wholly insignificant.
Those Lands designed to sow Madder ought to be deep ploughed, and very well dunged before Winter. Those Grounds which are a little Sandy, and have been very deep ploughed remaining more hollow, contribute best to the Madders taking and encreasing its Root, for which reason, they are more proper than more retaining and claiy Grounds, which press the Root too close and hinder its growth, as well as too dry Lands, for want of moisture.
After the Earth is well prepared, Madder is commonly sown reasonably thick in March, in the wane of the Moon, Harrowing or raking the Ground to render it more solid, and the better to eradicate the Weeds of which 'tis very necessary it should be very well cleansed, especially at the beginning that they may not drain the Substance of the Earth, and mix their Roots with those of the Madder, which will spoil its Growth: And tho' Madder being grown pretty large attracts so large a share of Sap, that it prevents the Earth's throwing out a great quantity of Weeds, yet this ought not to save us the Labour of keeping the Ground perfectly free from them: But as the Weeds ought at first to be plucked up by the Roots with the Hand, for fear of eradicating the tender Madder with the other, it may be done with proper howing Instruments when the Madder hath taken deep root, and is grown larger.
The Madder Root ought to be very large before it is plucked up, or gathered, which ought to be done in less than 18 Months after it is sown; The gathering of the largest is generally begun in SEPTEMBER, cutting the Leaves of that which you leave in the Earth, for when you gather that which is ripe you ought to leave those Roots which are not ripe in the Ground and covering them with Earth, suffer 'em to grow till the next SEPTEMBER following, when you may again gather the largest, and so consecutively for the space of Eight or Ten Years; during which time your Madder Ground will continue, well stored either with Roots left to grow larger, or those which remain deep in the Earth, or those formed of the Fibres or from the Small remaining parts of Roots which have been plucked up: but after the expiration of that Term of Years, the Madder should be sowed in other fresh Lands, the old Ground being no longer fit to produce it; and Madder as well as Woad, is endowed with the excellent quality, of clearing the Land of Weeds, and consequently rendring it more fertil and proper to sow Corn in, of which it will then yield extraordinary plentiful crops. Madder is so easily produced, that its very Stalks laid in the Earth will take Root, and serve to replenish a Madder Ground, that is almost cleared of its Root.
The New Madder field may be cultivated by gathering all the small and immature Roots of the Old one and Transplanting them into the new, as is practised in young Onions and Leeks, the Land being first well tilled: This practice will very much advance the Madder Ground, because the Root being already somewhat Grown, will more easily take in the fresh Ground.
The Madder Root of FLANDERS and ZEALAND, after its grown sufficiently Large and Ripe, is gathered and laid a drying in the Sun, or in a very warm Land in the shade, after which the better to preserve its Substance and Colour, it must be ground to Powder in a Mill, in order to be well packed in double Sacks, to prevent its flying out, and there it is kept for use. The freshest Madder produces the brightest Dye; that of a Year old yields more Colour, but that which is too old loosing its Colour looses also its Vivacity, and as it fades it renders the Dye very faint.
But as this way of cultivating Madder, is rather the result of the curious experiments, which have been made for diversion, and to try whether it was possible to produce it in FRANCE, than of a nice culture designed for profit ; and that those who plant it may every Day discover new and more Advantageous ways, as well of cultivating as preparing it for use : It would be necessary that the Commissary should search for the People most strongly bent to this sort of Husbandry, and the lands most proper for it; in which case, he should above all choose those places where the Seed is cheapest, or the Lands are Untilled, in order to oblige the Inhabitants to till them, and receive the Profit which Madder improvement would yield them; to which purpose, the Commissary should prevail upon two, or three, or more of the most skilful Husbandmen living near L'ISLE, to come and teach the Inhabitants their Method of improveing Madder, and to work themselves in the cultivating it, in the places chosen by the Officer.
There is a sort of Madder which Forreigners sell us, under the Name of BILLON DE GARANCE, which is often only a sort Red Earth, mixed with Madder Dust, or the refuse of that which hath been once used in their own Country, which is indeed a very pernitious cheat, because this sorry Stuff is generally put off in Barter for other Commodities, and in these sorts of exchanges the Traders believe 'tis allowable to cheat one another, contrary to the reciprocal justice of Commerce, and to the great prejudice of the Dyers whom they oblige to take this trash in payment for their Dying; and the publick is hereby imposed on by bastard Dyes, which spoil the Stuffs ; for this pretended Madder affords no Colour and only serves to rot the Wool by its earthy parts Sticking close to it. Wherefore 'twould be highly reasonable to prohibit this trash, and to cause it to be seized and confiscated, with the farther punishment of a Fine, and not to suffer any that is not of a just goodness to come into FRANCE, which pursuant thereunto should be viewed by the Officers to see if the Marks of the Sacks or Bails be right.
SPANISH Broom is a plant which grows spontaneously, or is cultivated, in almost all the Provinces of FRANCE; it should be sowed very thin in light Earth, in MARCH and SEPTEMBER, and being well howed and cleansed from Weeds, 'twill be ripe the JUNE or JULY following: In cold Countries it ought to be dryed after it is gathered, but in hot places 'tis commonly gathered dry enough; but particular care ought to be taken that it be not any ways moistned after 'tis gathered, as well as that it be not gathered before 'tis thorough ripe. The lesser sort enclining to Red, is more Substantial, and better than the large, which is of a kind of faded Green Colour; But that which inclines to Black, or is become musty by being wetted or gathered too Green, is the worst of all, and produces a faint worthless Colour. All the Provinces of FRANCE being well acquainted with the culture of this plant, I need say no more concerning it.
As there are very few Provinces in FRANCE, where Walnut-trees are not very common, so there are hardly any Husbandmen who don't know that the Root, Leaves and Bark of the Tree and the shells of the Fruit are used in Dying, and that consequently they can have Money for them of the Dyers ; 'tis only necessary to inform them that the Root is only good in Winter, when all the Sap of the Tree is retired into it ; the Bark when the Tree is in full sap, the leaf when the Nutts are not perfectly formed, and the Nutt shells, when the Nutts are in their Green shells, and when the Kernel is good to Eat. To preserve the Dye contained in them a long while, they ought to be put into a Copper or Tub filled with Water, from whence they ought not to be taken till they are to be used in Dying.
Vermillion, Scarlate grain or Chermes Berries, is the Alchermes of which the Apothecaries make that fine composition which they call Confection of Alchermes. It is a berry that grows Naturally upon a certain Species of Holmtrees (sometimes called the Scarlate Oak) in the Wild and Barren places of PROVENCE, LANGUEDOC and ROUSSILLON, having no occasion for Culture, but growing spontaneously, 'twould be unnecessary to say much of it, only to hint that it ought not to be gathered till perfectly ripe, because then it renders its Colour best; and that it may be abundantly gathered we ought to cause its consumption by using it in our Dyes according to this Instruction.
The Antients not having discovered the secret of our Chermes Berries or Vermilion to Dye their Wools or Stuffs, used the Blood of a sort of Oyster or Fish, to Dye their Scarlate or Purple, the finest sort of which was prepared in PHUNICIA, that being the Coast which most abounded with Oysters, and where this Dye was first discovered by the following accident; a Dog having eaten some of these Fish tinged his hairy Skin of a beautiful Purple or Scarlate with their Blood. This Dye became so clear and highly esteemed, Emperors only wore it, and that in little bands, as a mark of their Sovereignty.
But after the secret was discovered of producing a finer Purple or Scarlate at a much cheaper rate, with our Berries or Vermillion, than with the Blood of the Fish; the latter grew so obsolete, that at present 'tis not known so much as what sort of Oyster or Fish yielded that beautiful Dye, which would pass in these Days for an indifferent Colour, no ways to be compared to that of our Chermes Berries.
But as the Antient PHENICIAN Purple gave way to our Scarlate, whose Colour is much cheaper and finer, so our FRENCH Scarlate is almost grown obsolete by the Inconstancy and Levity of our Nation, and is forced to make room for the DUTCH Scarlate, a New invented Dye, which hath more Lustre, but less solidity. At first it took very much in FRANCE, after which the People being perswaded that both were given to spot and stain, they turned them both out of Fashion, by which means the sale of abundance of our best Cloaths was spoiled, which had been dyed of this rich Colour, which the chief of the Nobility were customed to wear, or at least always to have Cloaks of it, a Fashion more magnificent and finer than that of Chamblet Cloaks at present, which are most of them made in Foreign Countries, and are less Gentile as well as dearer, not to mention that they are not so lasting as the others.
To establish the Advantagious Manufacture of Cloaths, and to premote the consumption of Vermillion or Chermes Berries, 'twill be necessary to re-establish the wearing of Scarlate Cloath amongst People of Quality, and the Gentlemen of the Army: 'Tis a Colour so August that it seems the most proper to distinguish People of Condition and high Posts, and the Cloath is by the Dye the better preserved from Rainy and ill Weather, than by any other, whilst Foreign Chamblets fray and rent, not being able to endure half the ill Weather as the former.
SARETTE and GENISTROLLE, being two plants which grow spontaneously: RODOUL - and Fovic being Leaves of small Shrubs which are not cultivated, 'tis therefore unnecessary to speak of either of them; the most ignorant Person in the World, who lives where they grow, knowing very well, that they are useful in Dying.
We ought only to observe that as well SARETTE and GENISTROLLE, as RODOUL and Fovic, that is design'd to be kept any time, ought to be very ripe before it is gathered; but that which you would use immediately, it is not of Importance whether it be so or no.
Most People know that Tartar proceeds from Wine Lees, that Verdigrease is made of Copper and Grapes which have passed the Wine press; that the Ashes used in Woading are reboiled Ashes; and that burnt tartar is the Lees of Wine burnt. We ought only to observe that Wine Lees is to be had in all FRANCE, and that burnt Tartar is a very necessary ingredient in Dying in all the Provinces of FRANCE, wherefore 'twould be proper to establish in two or three Towns in each Province, Persons who understand that Process, that the Dyers may not be obliged to go far to buy it, and to encourage these People with a sort of Priviledge for six or twelve Years.
Nature which hath so well disposed FRANCE for the production of Vegetables proper for Dying, hath not been less Liberal to her in Mineral Salts useful in the same Art ; she has bestowed upon her Allom and Vitriol, which are found in several parts of the PYRENAN Hills, and various other places in the Kingdom, as well as several other Minerals, which we go in quest of to Forreign Countries. If some FRENCH Men would be as earnest in search of them, or as just in rewarding discoverers, as they are greedy in attributing the honour of it to themselves, and unjustly usurping the reward, they might easily be found.
The Activity of the FRENCH Temperament, which renders them very improper (as long as the fire lasts) to make any new discoveries, or apply themselves vigorously to a labour which they believe will continue a long time, bends their inclinations very forcibly to pursue the designs which others have began, and reap the Fruit which they have not sown; but sometimes finding their desired Crop not so near as they expected, or desiring to reap it alone, they grasp at more than they can manage, but soon quit their designs, and as much as they are able hinder others from continuing them, which is the true reason why no Body ventures at discovering, nor labours in the Mines in the Kingdom; wherefore we are obliged to buy at a very dear rate of Strangers, what our own Country would abound in if improved.
Tho' the Allom proceeding from the PYRENEAN Mines on the FRENCH side is salter, which renders it less fit for dying then that of ROME, or CIVITA VECCHIA, nevertheless as the excellence of the latter may be owing to their way of curing or preparing of it, by which they do as it were purify it from all the disagreeable qualities of the Mine, which may adhere to it; 'tis also probable, that if Workmen were brought from thence to purify our own Allom the same way, it would be better at least than it is, if not as good or better than that which comes to us from several parts of EUROPE, where the Natives know better how to Husband Natures Benefits than we do: If this were tryed, 'twould keep a great deal of our Money at home.
The Vitriol dug out of the Mines at the bottom of the PYRENEES on the FRENCH side, being fatter and more Claiy than that which comes from FLANDERS, LIEGE or ENGLAND, may perhaps discourage those who would attempt the working of our Mines, if they are not informed that our Mines not being sufficiently opened or dug any farther than the Surface, where the Mineral naturally contracts faults of its neighbouring Earth, which in conjunction with the Vitriol forms a Crust composed of one and the other; when 'tis indeed more than probable that if we dug deeper into the Body of the Mine, we should find the Mineral better digested.
Minerals are never dug out of the Earth perfectly clean and fine ; they must be refined and cleansed from their noxious qualities, and if in some Mines they do not rise so absolutely pure and perfect as in others, the vast quantity which may be extracted, the convenience of an easy Transportation and sale, may recompense the other faults. If our Allom is not so good as the ROMAN, it should not hinder us from using it in several Colours, as well as the White Allom which comes from several parts of EUROPE. The same might be said of Vitriol, if the Mines were well opened.
Wherefore that we may not leave such a rich Treasure unimploy'd in the Bowels of the Earth, and to oblige our Country-Men to discover those Mines that may be yet unknown in FRANCE; 'tis necessary to allot a small recompence to those who first discover Mines, and to cause them to be incessantly wrought by skilful Workmen, who should be brought from Mines of the same Nature in other Countries, if there are none in FRANCE who are fit.
We have also in FRANCE CASSENOLLE or galls which grow upon Oak Leaves, Alder Bark, FUSTEL, which is a small sort of Wood that comes from PROVENCE, MALHERBE and TRENTANEL, two plants which when used emit a very strong Scent, they grow in LANGUEDOC and PROVENCE. GAROUILLE is to be found in PROVENCE, LANGUEDOC and ROUSSILLON.
Thus you have all the Ingredients requisite to the Dying of some Colours, in some places, and some sort of Stuffes, according to this Instruction : as well as Orseille, which is a sort of small Mosse or Crust that grows upon stoney Hills or Rocks, and which prepared with Salt and Urine, produces a very fine mixture of Colours : There is also another sort, which is to be found in ROUSSILLON.
Tho' ORSEILLE is the same with LORCHIELLE or LURSOLE, which comes from the CANARIES, and yields no lasting Dye, yet its Beauty has brought this Drug into so great request that Monsieur DE BETHANCOURT in his Conquest of those Islands reserved the Trade of it wholly to himself, as the clearest and most advantagoius part of his Revenue, and it was what would have turned to a very good Account in FRANCE, if our Nation would not have used that of GENOUA and other Foreign Countries, instead of that which grows and is cultivated at home, which is at least as good, and produces better Dyes.
Tho' FRANCE produces several other Drugs or Ingredients proper for the Dying of Wools, yet having spoken of the Principal, 'tis only necessary, before I conclude this Instruction, to tell the Reader, that Dying contributes full as much to the Beauty and sale of Stuffs, as the Materials and making, and that it is impossible to Establish commerce without good Colours, nor to have good Dyes without the good Drugs which grow in FRANCE; but we cannot expect to have them in their utmost perfection without Establishing their Culture, the Provinces which shall be necessary, and without procureing the consumption by using them in our Dyes according to this instruction. All these things evince the intire connection of them, and consequently the impossibility of re-establishing one without the other. And as the whole ought to be carried. on by the same Genius, since 'tis otherwise impossible to reap all the advantages which the Publick may hope for; so these are not so inconsiderable so that the consumption of these Drugs in the Realme may amount to above two Millions of Livres Yearly; that being one of the necessary consequences of this following Instruction, as well as those advantages we should reap by employing our People, and the better sale of Stuffs, which good Dying would cause; which indeed would be very great and considerable.
Observations on the Twelfth and last Part.
WHAT our Author says in this Part of the Fertility of FRANCE, with respect to Minerals and Vegetables proper for Dying, that grow there, and may be increased and improved by Culture; is alike true of GERMANY ; for 'tis very well known, in several places of SAXONY and THURINGEN, especially at ERFFURTH and GOTHA, Woad has been a great while cultivated, and that it sufficiently encreased Trade in those parts, and now would; If, First, the misuse of Indigo was strictly forbidden and punish'd; Secondly, If the Fraud in preparing and selling Woad were prevented; And thirdly, If several sloathful lazy People were employed (as in other Works to the Publick good) so in particular, to the Culture of Woad. The neglect of the two first hath driven the Woad Culture out of ERFFURTH and THURINGEN, and 'tis at present mostly got into the Principality of GOTRA, by the Laudable Zeal of the Inhabitants for the Publick good: But thro' the excessive use of Indigo, 'tis even there less cultivated than formerly. As for the slighter sort of Woad, 'tis easily enough cultivated, and very well requites the Trouble, and more Woad of all sorts may be produced. Chermes Berries not being so well known, 'tis to be doubted whether it growing Spontaneously is to be produced by Culture; but perhaps it may be found in several of the Woody Countries of GERMANY, particularly in the Lands of the Margrave of BRANDENBURG; and by the help of industry and care may be planted: I doubt not in the least, which is the more to be wished, because Cochineal commonly used in Dying, is not always to be had, and 'tis always sold as dear as the EAST INDIA Company please. Besides that the Dye is apt to spot or stain, and is not lasting. Madder is plentiful enough amongst us, as well as in the Principality of GOTHA, and the territories of BRESLAW, from whence comes the name of BRESLAW-Madder; and tho' it looks coarser and browner, yet there is no other real difference, than that the mentioned (Article 18) famous FLANDERS-Madder is better cured or prepared, which may be also done by us if we please; 'tis true the HOLLAND Madder seems cleaner and falls lighter and visibly different in the Dye, and on the contrary, the BRESLAW Madder becoming rather a Red Earth, than a Root, looks of a Walnut Colour; but the difference is undoubtedly owing to the different ways of Culture, tho' some are of Opinion the HOLLAND sort ought to be chosen, because it is gaudyer.
SPANISH Broom is not known amongst us, but Broom and Dye Weed grow spontaneously amongst us in great abundance in several Places and may easily be sowed where it doth not, to good Advantage. Turmerick and Verdigrease we have not yet; Walnut-trees are plenty everywhere, which is so much the better, because the Leaves, Bark, Root and Nut-shells are all used. We want yet SUMACH, RODOUL and Fovic. The two last we have never heard of, but by our Authors Account; tho' upon sight of the Shrub I doubt not but we should know them. The SUMACH may be plentifully produced, experience sufficiently confirms by those who cultivate it an Ornament to their Gardens. Some of our Dyers esteem the CASSENOLLE or little Gall which grow upon Oak Leaves, as the best, it being a right sort of Galls, and it plainly appearing that they are soft and well digested, beside that they yield a most beautiful Dye. Alder Bark we have as much as there is occasion for. Tartar is abundantly plentyful in our Wine Countries. Vitriol abounds in our Mines, which the GOFFLARISCH and SILESIAN is cheapest. What is not said here by way of Notes this Chapter, expect in our Appendix by way review of our Notes.
APPENDIX TO THE INSTRUCTION FOR DYING.
CHAP. I. Of Indigo.
INDIGO is a sap proceeding and prepared from a Plant in the EAST-INDIA; the intire process of its preparation, you have described in TAVERNIERS' Travels, LIB. 2. CAP. 12. and is as followeth:
Indigo proceeds from a Plant which is produced from its proper Seed, sown Yearly after the Rainy Season is over. In its Growth, Ripeness, and Figure, 'tis not unlike Hemp. It yields three Crops Annually ; the first is cut when 'tis about two or three Foot high, and is much better than the second or third Crop, the second being esteemed ten or twelve PER CENT, worse than the first, and the third twenty PER CENT, worse than the second, which difference is clearly visible upon the breaking of the Cakes. That prepared from the first is of a blewish Violet Brown Colour, brighter and more lively than the other two : But the difference of the Prizes of the several sorts being so considerable, tempts the INDIANS to commit several Frauds, as well in the weight as goodness, which I shall elsewhere mention. After the INDIANS have cut this plant they throw it into Lime Pits about eighty or a hundred Paces in Circumference, or repositorys design'd for that end, and mix'd it with Lime, where it becomes as hard as Marble. These Pits should be about half full of water, and afterwards filled up with the Plant which is cut down, and daily stirred and intermixed with the Water, till the Colour is perfectly exhausted from first the Leaves, and then the Staulks, so that they turn to a glutenous Substance, becoming like a heap of Clay; after which let it stand for several Days 'without stirring it to settle; and when the Colour is perfectly setled to the bottom, and the Water above remains clear, open the outlets of the Pit hitherto close shut, and let the Water run off, then remove the sediment in Baskets, to a plain Ground, where make it into little pyramidical Cakes. The Indigo of AMADABAT is made in flat round Cakes. The Merchants that they may not pay Custom for any thing that is not valuable, before they transport the Indigo into EUROPE, cause it to be sifted, and sell the Dust to the Inhabitants to Dye with. Those who sift the Indigo are obliged to take particular Care of themselves, by clapping a Linnen Cloath before their Faces, and stopping all Passages of the Air, except two little holes left for them to see out of. Not only the sifters, but the Clark and Officers of the Company, who have the inspection of the Indigo Works, are obliged every half hour to drink milk, which is a remedy against the Corrosive quality of the Indigo Dust. Notwithstanding all this Care, 'tis impossible for those people who are obliged to sift, or be about the sifters for eight or ten Days, to prevent all things seeming Blue that they look upon, which I can the better assert, having several times myself tried the Experiment, in being amongst these sifters such is the Penetrating Nature of this Indigo Dust.
When they make the Cakes out of the Mass, they are used to oil their Fingers, and after they are made, they are laid a drying in the Sun: And when the Merchant buyes the Indigo, he always causes some of the Cakes to be burnt, to try whether there be any sand in it. For the Workmen who make the Cakes, or when they have oiled their Fingers, are very apt to put them into the Sand, and thereby mix it with the Indigo, which spoils and increases the weight of the Indigo but if it be burnt it turns to Ashes, and the Sand remains. A like Description, see in HISTORIE DES JOYAUX in the Philosophical Transact, 1666, Month of MARCH.
CHAP. II. Of the Culture of Woad in Saxony and Thuringia.
THE learned GEORGE WOLFGANG WEIDELIUS having treated the Subject the most accurately of any that I know, in his EXPERIMENTUM NOVUM DE SALE VOLATILI PLANTARUM, I cannot present you with a better account, than a Translation of what he hath said.
There are two sorts of Woad, the one sowed or planted, called ISATRA; and the other wild or spontaneous: The use of the former in Dying is very ancient, as appears from DIOSCORIDES, QUA LANARUM INFECTORES UTUNTUR; from whence it naturally follows, that the Culture and Preparation of that Plant was not unknown to the antients. Hence it was accounted the third staple product of THURINGIA, according to CORNAR, IN COMMENTAR, IN DlOSCOR: DB. 2 CAP. 169. PAG. 210. from whence, I doubt not, came our common GERMAN Proverb, That THURINGIA alike produces Wine, Wheat and Woad, to which may very well be added a fourth, namely, Wool. The production of Woad is very easy in a fat Soil, it growing as fast as Tares.
But it grows best of all in those Fields where Flax hath before been cultivated; if planted in other Ground, the Land ought to be first well dunged. Whether the land hath been fertilized by Flax or Dung, it must next be Dug in order to be sowed, or rather ploughed with a Plough made on purpose, called the great Woad Plough, drawn by four Horses. But if 'tis ploughed with the common Plough, it ought to be very slowly and deeply done, the Work requiring Time and Labour; wherefore it ought to be done in sight of the Owners, rather than trusted to others.
The Ground ploughed in AUTUMN, must be left to the moistening of the Snow and Rain, till CANDLEMAS Day. 'Tis of no consequence whether the seed be stale or fresh : But particular Care ought to be taken that it be not spoiled with Smoak, which renders it wholly ineffectual. After CANDLEMAS, in tolerable Weather, 'tis sowed, but Care is to be taken that it is not done too thick, and a little Snow is to be wished for, which will promote the growth. After sowing it ought to lye a Day or two, and then should be covered with the Earth by Harrowing.
After EASTER, it must be very well cleansed from Weeds.
The first Crop is ripe after Midsummer, and when the extream leaves begin to turn Yellow, or the Flowers are full blown, it must be cut down, laid in heaps, and washed.
After which it ought to be transported to a proper place to spread it abroad and turn it, in order to dry it, which if carefully done, redounds to the Advantage of the Husbandman, by increasing the Number of Balls, as it tends to the profit of the Buyer, because if it be throughly dryed the Colour is better and more lasting. But uncertain Weather sometimes drying it, and sometimes moistening it by Showers, when it ought to be freed from all extraneous Humidity, endangers its Corruption, as appears by its frequently turning Black in the space of one Night.
Being cleared of its superfluous moisture, it is heaped up and ground in stamping Mills, commonly used in THURINGIA for this end, or between Stones, the old way of curing it. After this grinding it ought to be gathered into heaps, which should be covered at the top to shelter them from the Rain, and left exposed to the air on the sides, that by Night it may be cleared of its remaining herbaceous Humidity. This Method is described in few Words by COMMENT. in DlOSCOR. LIB. 2. CAP. 177. FAG. 193.
Being reasonably freed from its moisture, 'tis made into large Balls, and the last time laid to dry upon Hurdles in a roofed place, so that 'tis to be observed, that the greatest Care required, is that of perfectly drying it : for if any Humidity be left, 'twill be apt to putrify it, and render the Commodity as worthless to the Husbandman as useless to the consumer, it being unfit to produce any Volatil Salt. The Balls ought to be left here as long as occasion requires; after which they should be removed to a Granary or Warehouse.
These Balls which are usually sold by the sixty, being piled in heaps grow sensibly hot, and exhale a Urinary Volatile Salt, sooner or later, as the warmth of the Season or the great quantity of Balls occasions it: This spreading Salt not only extends its self to the place where the Balls are, but fills all the Neighbouring Houses with its Smell, and occasions a sort of Dewy drops to hang on the Wall, Roofs and other Parts of the Houses, which evaporate into Air, if the Volatile Salt be not extracted. At last by pouring water upon it, the heat grows more intense; and tho' it doth not reduce the Woad to Ashes as some assert, yet it turns it to a Coarse Powder, fit for the Dyers use.
But to conclude what yet remains to be said of the Culture of Woad: It should be a second time Weeded, not with Hands as at first, but Sheep should be put into the Woad grounds to eat up the Grass and Weeds, and clean the Woad, which they cannot hurt by eating it, because they cannot eat the Salt, nor can they injure it by treading it down, unless they are left too long in the Ground by the negligence of the Sheepherd.
Six Weeks after the first Crop, it may be cut again as before, and six weeks after that it may be cut a third time, if the Autumnal Weather favour the Work; but if the Frosty Weather comes too soon upon it, the third Crop is not to be expected so good, as well because it hath not been sufficiently influenced by the digesting Sun, and the Dye is poorer, as that the time of washing is somewhat unseasonable, the Water is cold, the Woad is unfit for that sort of preparation, not to mention that its strength is near exhausted, and it affords very little Salt.
From whence it appears that those who plough their lands for Woad later or about Lent time can reap but two Crops, the first in Wheat and Rye Harvest, which uses to be called young Woad.
Those Lands which have been made to produce Woad for one Year, ought to be sowed with Barley the next Year.
But if there be a want of Woad Seed, a part of the third Crop should be left standing, which will grow to Seed next Year, and will yield about as much Money as a Crop of Oats.
Some Farmers after the third Crop, or second of the young Woad, in order to augment their Gains after the harshness of the Seasons Obstacles that have in some measure injured their Crop, choose rather to leave the Plant in the Ground till the Lent following, and reap a crop of slight Woad, called the second sort of Woad, than to Plough their Lands for Barley; 'tis so great a mistake, that as the Woad is very poor, so it impoverishes the Ground much, that much more is lost in a succeeding barley Crop than gained by the last of Woad.
CHAP. III. Of Chermes Berries.
CHERMES or Chermes Berries you have very well described by EICSTADIUS (DE CONFECT ALCHERMES. PAG. 16, 17.) and earned AMMANNUS in his MANUDUCTOI AD MATERIAM MEDICAM. PAG. 87 tells us that Chermes is the old Coccus BAPHICA, or Dying coccus. The Bramble or Tree is a sort of HOLM called COCCIFERA or COCCIGLANDIFERA. When these Berries are over ripe (whence the rimson, Purple and Scarlate Dyes are prepared) they breed a sort of Worm, which turning to a fly takes its flight, if not prevented by killing it. The Dyers don't press these Berries through Cloth or Sieves, but infuse them in Wine or Vinegar.
But in the Philosoph. Transactions, for DECEMBER 1666. OBSER. 7th. you have an Account of a very curious and Advantageous way of gathering and preparing these Berries. VERNEY a FRENCH Apothecary in a Description of the Chermes Berries, saith, they are an Excrescence found at the extream parts of the Leaves, and on the Superficies of the Wood which grows in LANGUEDOC.
These Leaves are gathered about the end of MAY, or beginning of June; and the Berries are found full of Red juice, useful as well in Pharmacy as Dying of Wool and Silk, to which last end these Chermes Berries when ripe are spread upon a Cloath, and stirred or turned two or three times a day so long as they continue moist, which is done to prevent their growing too hot; carefully observing them when a sort of Red Powder appears betwixt the Berries, which must immediately be separated from the Berries, by sifting them in a Searce, then spread afresh the Berries abroad on the Cloath till the Powder appears again on the superficies of the Berries; upon which they must be again strained, and this Operation must be so often repeated, till no more Powder appears.
When the little Berries first begin to move themselves, they ought to be sprinkled with Vinegar and rubbed betwixt the Hands: after which they are formed into little Balls, and laid in the Sun to dry. When this Powder or little Berries are so neglected, so that no Vinegar or Acid Liquor is sprinkled upon them, you will find a Number of Flyes proceed from the Berries equal to the Number of Berries themselves which will flutter about a Day or two, and at last changing Colour fall down dead, and deprived of all the bitter taste, that was before in the Berries, whence these Worms proceeded. The dry Husks of these Berries, after the Substance consisting in the Red Powder is extracted, are moistened with Wine and exposed to the Sun, and when dry are put into a Bag, and shaken by two Men, till they shine very brightly ; after which they're put into little Bags, with a quantity of the Powder, proportioned to the quantity the Berries have yielded, as the 7th, 8th or 9th Part; and as the Powder falls off, more or less, so is the produce greater or lesser.
CHAP. IV. Of Pot-Ashes.
THE Preparation of this Vegetable fixed Salt is very pertinently described in LUNCKELIUS DE ARTE VITRIARIA, and is as follows: Take the Ashes of hard Woods, as Oak, Beech, Alder, Birch, Hawthorn, and a sort of Husks of Grapes, or the Ashes of any Plant or Tree in general (but the hard woods afford most Salt) of which make a sharp Lye, and when it is very clear, boil it in a thick Iron Cauldron, or (where a less quantity is to be made) in a thick Earthen unglazed Pot, press it down close, harden and dry it : and after that dig it out of the Kettle with a Chissel, taking care that no holes be thereby made in the Kettle; and if boiled in an Earthen Pot, you may break that off the Mass of Ashes or Grey Saline Substance, which must then be burned till it becomes White: And this is the Pot-Ashes, which ought to be laid in dry places in the open Air, and kept from moisture or Water. The Ashes that remain after you have made the abovementioned Lye, are an extraordinary good manure for Land, it attracting to itself the Nitrous Salt of the Air, which is the CARDO VEGELATIONIS according to DIGBY, in his Book DE VEGETATIONE PLANTARUM. and BECHERUS in his PHYSICA SUBTERRANEA.
CHAP. V. Of Verdigrease.
VERDIGREASE is mostly imported into GERMANY from FRANCE, where it is made after the following manner (according to ZWELFER in REFUTAT. TACHEN. PART 4 CAP. 39.) Take thin Plates or Leaves of Copper and Grapes, first pressed in a Wine-press, and dispose them alternately in Layers one upon another (putting between each Layer a very fine Linnen Cloath, to prevent their mixing) pour upon it one part of Vinegar, and three parts of Boys Urine: to which some add a little Allora and Nitre; this mixture must, in case it grows dry, be often moistened with fresh Urine till the Copper is throughly corroded and turned into Verdigrease, which is made into Loaves like those of Bread, and so kept for use.
N.B. Vinegar put into a Copper Vessel, contracts a sort of Green rust, but not comparable to Verdigrease; and the plain reason of the difference, is, that the pressed Grapes contain the most penetrating and Subtil Spirit of Wine, which being raised by heating the Grapes in the Pressure, is of a Nature so Volatile, that it can hardly be kept from evaporating in Distillation, or converted to a permanent Liquor, and is very unlike the common Distilled Spirit of Wine, as being of a more searching and subtil Nature: but it is in some measure like that Spirit which issues from the Must of Wine, when in a Ferment, which is so strong, that a whole Cellar where some fats of it are, is filled with a sort of Vapour so piercing, that it often suffocates those who unwarily stay in the Cellar above half an Hour, or don't expel this Noxious Vapour with Coals of Fire, as 'tis commonly done in AUSTRIA.
AGARIC-Agaricus quercinus, is the fungus of the Oak, useful for black dyes.
ALBIGIOS-Woad from Alby in the Albigensis country of Languedoc. The best of its kind.
ALKANET-Anchusa l'orcante/ Alcanna tinctoria of the Bugloss family, a native of the Levant. Dye matter is concentrated in the small roots.
ANNATO-Terra Orleana, Orellana, Bixa, Orleans, Roucou. Made from the Bixa tree of South America.
ARCHIL-Orseille, Orchella, Rocella tinctoria, a lichen from the Canary Islands. When prepared for dyers it at one time had the name of Lacmos or Litmas.
AURAGCEIS-Woad produced in the district of the Aurige River. The latter runs into the Garonne near Toulouse in Languedoc, and is one of the best kinds of Woad.
AVIGNON Berries,-a Lycium plentiful in that part of France (Provence).
BRASIL Wood came originally from Fermanbucco, a town of Brasil.
BROOM (Spanish). Spartum junceum.
CAMPEACHY WOOD-see Logwood.
CAMPESUANE-Cochineal of a low quality, probably wild.
CARTHAMUS-see wild Saffron.
CERUSE-white lead treated with vinegar vapour.
CHERMES - Kermes graines. Chermes of Provence are insects (coccus ilicis) which live out their lives as parasites on the quercus coccifera, found in the Levant and in Southern Europe. When the insect is dead its husk still protects the 1,800 or 2,000 eggs it has laid. In commerce the husks and the eggs are separated. The latter are made into a pastel with vinegar, and are twice as valuable as the husks.
CINNABAR-A mineral containing sulphur and quicksilver.
COCHINEAL-Cocci cactus, an insect of the Indian Fig or Nopal, i.e., the Cactus cochinella of Mexico, from which plant rich in red juice, it is supposed to derive its colouring matter. Mastique Cochineal or the Tesquala were the highest qualities.
CURCUMA-see Turmeric Curcuma Longa.
FENUGREC-Foenum Graceum. A herb anciently brought from Greece to Europe. Much used formerly by French dyers.
FUSTEL---A wood used in France, where it grows, instead of Fustic. Also called Provence Wood.
FUSTIC-A yellow wood from Brasil.
GAROUILLE-A grey dye stuff, but GAROU is a Spurge Laurel native to South of France.
GENISTROLLE-Genista tinctoria, green weed or dyers broom.
GROMELL.-Lithospermum arvensis, stonecrop.
GUMMI GUTTA-Gamboge from the Cambaja Gutta tree of Cambaja, East Indies.
LOGWOOD-Blue Wood, Campeachy Wood from Honduras and other parts of the West Indies.
QUERCITR0N-Quercus nigra. Roucou (Roucourt ?)-Annato.
RADOUL-a Shumac which grows in France.
SAFFRON-Bastard or Wild, Safflower-Carthamus tinctoria.
SANDARAC-A gum from the juniper.
SARRETTE-Seratula tinctoria. Saw wort.
SAUNDERS-Santalum Yellow, red, or white, from the East Indies. Red is used by dyers.
SYLVESTRE.-Wild or Bastard Cochineal.
TURMERIC-Curcuma Longa, native of the East Indies.
WELDS.-Reseda luteola, Dyers weed, green weed, wild Mignonette.