Part I. Of Silk Dying.
Of the Preparation of Raw Silk.
FOR every Pound of Raw Silk, take 1/4 of a Pound of Sope; first put the Silk into a Bag, or so make it up, that its tangling may be prevented, then let it boil together for two Hours. After which it must be very well cleansed, and so it is ready to Dye of all sorts of Colours, being first Allomed.
To Prepare Raw Silk.
FOR every Pound of Raw Silk, take 1/4 of Green or Black Sope, with which the Silk must be very well, and thoroughly smeared ; put it into a Linnen Bag, and then let it boil for six Hours. After which, take out the Bag and let the Silk cool, that it may the better be Handled; then Rince it in a River or running Water for 1/4 of an hour. Beat the Water out very well and rince it again, then dry it, and it is ready to Dye. This preparation is absolutely necessary to all raw Silks before they can be Dyed.
How the boiled Silk must be Allomed.
IN Proportion to every Pound of Silk, take 1/4 of a Pound of Allom, melt it in a little Kettle or Skillet, and when melted, throw it into a Tub of Water, into which put the Silk to steep, where let it lye a whole Night. The just Proportion of Silk and Allom abovementioned, must be carefully observed.
Of Red Silk Dying. How to make the preparatory Liquor or Suds, wherein the Silk must be steeped before it be Dyed Crimson.
FOR every Pound of Silk, take four Handfuls of wheat bran, put it into the quantity of about two Pails of Water; first boil them, then put the liquor into a Tub, letting it stand a whole Night, clarifie it, and take half of the Water, into which put 1/2 Pound of Allom, 1/4 Pound of Tartar of Red Wine, beaten to an impalpable Powder; and 1/2 an Ounce of Turmerick also beaten to a fine Powder; let them boil together for a quarter of an Hour, stirring them very well : then take the Kettle off the Fire, and immediately put in the Silk, covering the Kettle very close, that none of the Steam may Evaporate : let it stand for three Hours, after which Rince the Silk very well in cold Water, then beat it very well upon a block, and let it dry. After which take 1/4 of a Pound of Galls, beat them small, put them into a Pail of running River or Rain Water, boil them a full hour, take the Kettle off the Fire, and when it is become just cool enough for your Hand to bear it, put in the Silk where let it remain an Hour, then take it out and dry it.
To Dye Silk of a Crimson Colour.
TAKE the soaked or prepared Silk, and for every Pound thereof, weigh out one Ounce and a half of Cochineal, which beat to Powder, and pass it thro' a Hair Sieve; put it into the remaining Pail of Liquor last mentioned, hang it over the Fire again, then with the Liquor put it into a Brass Kettle, covering it very close that no dust get in, hang it over the Fire again, add one ounce and a half of White Arsenick, d two Ounces and a half of Tartar, both beaten to a fine Powder; let them boil together for a quarter of an Hour, take it off the Fire, and after it hath stood a very small time, put in the silk, stirring it about very well, that the Colour be not variegated when the Liquor is cold, wring the silk out, and if it is not tinged enough hang the Dye over the Fire again, and put in the Silk after 'tis beaten, as before. After the Silk is Dyed, it must be rinced first in Hot Suds made of Water, and 1/2 an Ounce of Venice Sope, proportion to every Pound of Silk, dissolved it ; and afterwards in cold River Water; then beat it upon a Block, and hang it to dry, upon which being spread abroad, wound and managed according to Custom, it becomes of a very good Crimson. If you would Dye Crimson from a Violet Ground, a third part of the Quantity of Ingredients may always be abated; that is a Pound of Silk so grounded, requires but an ounce of Cochineal, as much of Arsenick, and two Ounces of Tartar.
Cochineal Crimson Dye.
AFTER the Silk is well boiled or prepared, to every Pound of Silk, take Eight ounces of Crude Allom, and after that is dissolved, lay the Silk in the Liquor for the space of one Night ; next day let it be very well rinced & afterwards Dyed as follows, viz. Take a Kettle of Fair Water, and to every pound of Silk, put in together two Ounces and half of Cochineal, beaten very fine, three Ounces of beaten Galls, three Ounces of purify'd Gum, 1/8 part of an Ounce of Turmerick, and boil the Silk in this Liquor: Two Hours after which, let it remain in it a whole Night, and next Morning wring it and dry it.
A Cheaper sort of Red.
TAKE to every Pound of Silk, one Pound of Brasil, boil it and percolate it, then boil the Wood afresh, adding cold Water to it; wave or turn the Silk about in it, and take it out of that without wringing, and stir it up and down in the other Liquor, till it hath sufficiently imbibed the Tincture, then add a little Potashes or put them in cold Water and turn the Silk up and down in it, and when 'tis red enough, rince and dry it.
A Dove Crimson.
THE Silk being first Allomed as above directed, clean Rinced and hung upon Poles, then get a Kettle (well scoured) full of clean Water, and in proportion to every Pound of Silk put in one Ounce of Cochineal; stir the Silk in the Liquor and let them boil one Hour, after which let it be Rinced, wrung out and dryed. Particular Care must be taken that the Silk is not parti-color'd or of different Colours, by taking the Dye better in one place than another wherefore it must be put in when Liquor is lukewarm only.
A slighter sort of Dove Crimson.
TAKE to every Pound of Silk a quarter of a Pound of Brasil, let it boil, and percolate as above, then pour cold Water into it, till it comes Lukewarm, then stir the Silk in it till it hath extracted the Strength of the Dye or liquor, which then throw away, and again put fresh Water and then a little Pot-ashes to it; thus do we let it dissolve, stir the Silk in it, rince and dry it.
A Crimson with Orseille.
TAKE a clean Kettle, fill it with fair Water, and to every Pound of Silk put in twelve Ounces of Orseille, stir the silk about in it, and ring it out ; then to every pound of Silk dissolve quarter of a Pound of Allom, and a Handful of white Arsenick. Leave the Silk in this Liquor tiIl next Morning, and then let it be carefully wrung out and dryed: that done, in proportion to every Pound of Silk, take two Ounces of Cochineal, 2 Ounces of Galls, 2 Ounces of Gums and a little Turmerick, and let it boil with the Silk in it about two Hours, after which put a little Zepsie, leave the Silk in it all Night, and in the Morning, rince and dry it according Art.
A Blood Colour.
AFTER the Silk hath been soaked, as above directed, take to each Pound of it, 1/2 a Pound of Allom, a quarter of a Pound of Tartar, both pounded small, and boil them in the quantity of a Pail full of the Preparatory Liquor, a quarter of an Hour; then put in the Silk, letting it continue here two Hours, after which rince it and beat it upon the Block, then hang it out and let it dry. This done put into the quantity of a Pail of Water, a quarter of a Pound of powdered Galls ; set it on the Fire, and when it is become so warm that you can just bear your Hand in it, put the Silk in, where let it remain two Hours; after which take it out and dry it. All which done, take one Pound and a half of good Brasil, and some Wheat-Bran Water, put the Brasil in a Linnen Bag, and that with the Water into a Kettle, cover 'em close, boyl 'em together, take the Kettle off the Fire and let it stand a whole Night; then put in a quarter of an Ounce of Potashes and boil it again for an Hour, then pour on as much River Water as the Liquor. Take out the Bag of Brasil and put in the Silk when 'tis a little scummed ; cover the Chaldron very close, letting it remain there half an Hour, then wring it out, rince it clear in River Water, wring it out again, and let it dry, and if it be not enough Dyed, boil the Dye again and put in the Silk once more and clean it with Sope, as in the Crimson Dye, and then rince it in River Water, and you will have a beautiful Red.
Madder-Red. The Preparatory Liquor made as for the Crimson.
Put half a Pound of Madder into the quantity of a Pail of River Water, boil it a full Hour, and take particular care that it doth not boil over; decant it into a Fat, adding half an Ounce of Turmerick, and stirring it about with the Silk ; when it is cold put in the Silk, and when you take them out, rince them very well and beat them upon the Block; then take half a Pound of good Brazil Wood, and boil in about a Pail full of the Preparatory Liquor, a full half Hour, then pour it off into the Fat, into which put the Silk, and after cleanse or scour it as with Sope, then rince it in River Water, &c. according to Art.
Another Madder Red.
CLEAN the Kettle very well and put into it clean Rain-water and the Silk being first Allomed and prepared as above, to every Pound of Silk, take one Pound of Madder, four Ounces of Galls, and put them with the Silk into the Suds, not suffering it to boil; and after it hath remained half an hour in the mentioned Liquor, rince it, beat it and hang it upon the Sticks ; then rince it in a Tub of cold Water with a few Pot-ashes, and if the Dye is finished, rince it and dry it.
UNTO one Pound of Allomed Silk, take half a Pound of Brazil, tye it up in a Bag and lay it in liquor for half an Hour, when take it out and put in an Ounce of beaten Turmerick; let the Dye dissolve, and when it is cold take out the Silk and put the Bag in again, with some Lye, boil it also again; then take out the Bag and put in the Silk, leaving it in till it's cold, then rince and dry it.
Flesh Colour or Incarnadine.
TO every Pound of Silk, take a quarter of a Pound of Brasil, let it boil; pass it through a Sieve and pour fresh cold Water upon it; While it is warm put in the Silk, moving it about till it hath drawn all the Strength out of the Dye, then rince and dry it.
A Paler Flesh Colour.
THIS Dye must be made just as the last mentioned, only the same quantity of Ingredients will Dye two Pound of Silk in this Dye, that are used for one in the other, without any Galls.
The Beautiful Spanish Flesh Colour or Carnation.
TAKE the Silk, after 'tis prepared and Allomed as for Crimson, then to every Pound of Silk take four Pound of Wild Saffron, which put into a thick Bag, throw them into several Waters, and work it so long till the Water comes from it clear; then take the Saffron out of the Bag, squeeze and rub it with your hands till it be dry, putting it into another Vessel ; after which in proportion to every Pound of Silk, take four Ounces of Pot-ashes and rub them well into the Saffron in the clean Vessel ; after which, if necessary, it may be yet rubbed with a little more Pot-ashes. All which being done, divide the Saffron in two parts; take a Bag so thick that no Pot-ashes can pass through, when it is tyed up; put one part of the Saffron into this Bag and pour clean Water upon it in the Kettle, till the strength of the Saffron is boiled out. Then for every Pound of Silk, take half a pint of Lime juice, and divide it into two parts, and to each part of Saffron, add one part of Lime Juice; then take the dry Silk and stir it up and down in the Kettle wherein the loose part of the Saffron is, for the space of an Hour; then let it be very well wrung and passed thro' the Kettle where the Bag is, and for an Hour continually stir'd; then let it be wrung again and dryed in a dark place, and not in a clear light; and it will be of your desired beautiful Colour.
TO every Pound of Silk, take one Ounce of Orleans, dissolve it in Water and wave the dryed Silk in it till it lathers, but it must not boil ; then rince and beat the Silk clean, and take to every Pound of Silk, four Pound of Wild Saffron very well pressed as above, and four Ounces of Potashes, with half a pint of Lime juice. The Italian Carnation or Flesh Colour is prepared the same way.
The Silks being first Boiled, Rinced, Beaten and Dryed.
FOR every Pound of Silk, take two Ounces of Orleans dissolve it in warm Water, and wave the Silk to and fro in it, so long that it is just ready to boil, which it must not be suffered to do; then rince and beat the Silks, after which to every Pound of Silk take six Pound of Wild Saffron prepared as above, in the Spanish Incarnadin, four Ounces and a half of Potashes, two quarterns and a half of Lime Juice; all which must be prepared as both the former.
CLEAN the Kettle very well and put in clean Rain-water, then to every Pound of Silk, take four Ounces of Pot-ashes, four Ounces of Orleans, pass them through a Sieve into the Kettle and dissolve them very well. Then the boiled and Allomed Silk (first well rinced from the Allom) must be stirred about in it and boiled, then wrung out, rinced and beaten; then for every Pound of Silk, take 12 Ounces of Galls, which boil two Hours, and then let them cool for two Hours, and afterward lay the Silk to soak in it for three or four Hours; after which take it out, wring, rince, beat and dry it.
LAY the White Silk in Allom Water in the same manner as the yellow, then take the eighth part of a Pound of Orleans, dissolve it the space of one Night in Water, add one Ounce of Potashes, boil it for half an Hour, then add one Ounce of beaten Turmerick; stir it very well, let it stand a little while, and then put in the Allom'd Silk, and let it remain there one two or three Hours, according as you desire the Colour should be light or deep, rince it in a fine Sope Suds, till 'tis perfectly clean, then beat and dry it.
RINCE and beat the prepared Silk very well then stir it about in the same Liquor in which the Orange Colour is dyed, and so you will have a fine Isabella. Then let it be well rinced, wrung and beaten, then lay it in the Gall Suds which the Orange hath before been in for three or four Hours after which rince and dry it very well. If you have no Orange Suds, take for every Pound of Silk one Ounce of Orleans, half an Ounce of Pot-ashes, and dye it therein like the Orange ; then Gall, rince an dry it.
A slight sort of Purple.
CLAP the Silk into the slighter red Dye, but increase the quantity of Pot-ashes to turn it to Purple then rince and dry it.
The manner of Purple.
THE Silk must first be boiled and Allomed, as for Madder Red: then put a sufficient quantity of clean Water into the Kettle, and for every Pound of Silk take an ounce of Galls, an Ounce and half of Cochineal beaten to a fine Powder, an Ounce of Gums; boil them together as you do the Crimson Dye, then lay the Silk to soak in it for one Night, after which cleanse it and you have a good Purple.
To reduce it to Violet.
YOU must boil the Silk in the blew Dye Suds, as often as you please, according as you desire it to be dyed, Light or Deep; then let it be rinced and dryed, and you will find it of a beautiful Colour.
FOR every Pound of Silk, take one Pound of blew or Provence Wood, boil and stir the Silk in it, as in the Red Dye, put in the last Suds a few Galls, then rince and dry the Silk.
A very good lasting Violet.
FROM the following Dye are Composed the best Tawnies, Grey and Crimson Goat Colours. This Violet is prepared as follows, for every Pound of Silk, take one Pound of Galls, and one Pound of Blew Wood. The Silk must be put in when the Suds are cold, for the colder the Suds the blewer the Violet Colour, which must always be blewer than the Tawnies. Let it lye one Night in the Suds, and in the Morning rince and dry it.
ALLOM the Silks as for Tawny, and for every two Pound of Silk, take two Pound of Provence Wood, boil it in a Bag a full Hour, then take it out, put in the Silk, boil it an Hour, then take it out and put in the Bag again; then rince it in a Lye as above made, without Bole Armeniac, and after that in running Water.
Crimson Deep Tawny.
THE Silks first prepared, clean the Kettle, and for every Pound of Silk, put in one Pound of Galls, one Pound of Madder, half a Pound of Blew Wood, and boil them together with the Silk for an Hour, the Wood being put into a Bag to prevent its hanging in the Silk. Let the Silk remain a whole Night in the Liquor and in the Morning take it out, wring and beat it well, then rince it again; after which beat and dry it.
PUT a sufficient quantity of Water into a clean Kettle or Copper, and for every Pound of Silk, take twelve Ounces of Madder, twelve Ounces of Galls ; boil the Silks with them an Hour, and after they are taken out let them be a little brouned, and then dryed.
A slighter form of Tawny.
IS prepared in the same manner with the Red, only with this difference: to every Pound of Silk, take one Pound of Brasil Wood, and the eighth part of a Pound of Provence Wood, manage the Silks as in the Red and dry it.
Crimson Tawny with Cochineal.
PUT THE Silk being first Allomed and prepared as in the Crimson ; take a clean Kettle, fill it with fair Water and some blew Wood Suds, of each a like quantity, and then for every Pound of Silk, put in one Ounce of Galls, one Ounce and a half of Cochineal; after which the Silks ( being first well rinced ) must be put in and carefully stirred about to prevent variegating or spotting, because the Provence Wood Suds is apt to spot if it be not very violently stirred, and then let it continue one whole Night in the Suds, after which rince and dry it.
THE Silk being first laid in a strong Allom Water for twenty four Hours, for every Pound of Silk, take one Pound of good Brasil Wood, boil it in a Bag two full Hours, then take it out and let the Liquor stand till you can just bear your Hand in it, then put in the Silk, and let it continue there an Hour, then take it out and dry it; boil the dye again, put it in again as before, and then Rince it very clean: Then take Bole Armeniack, beat it small and mix it with Beech-ashes, to be made into a Lye, which strain two or three times through a Cloath, make it Milk warm, and then put in the Silk: when it is deep enough dyed, Rince, Beat and Dry it.
A Lasting deep Tawny.
CLEAN the Kettle very well, then fill it with Water, and for every Pound of Silk, put in one Pound of Blew-Wood, one Pound of Galls; let them boil an Hour, and then fill it up with Gall Water, and while it is hot put in and stir the Silk, letting them continue in till next Day, then Rince and Dry it.
Crimson Musk Colour.
CLEAN the Kettle and fill it half full of Water, and to every Pound of Silk, take a quarter of a Pound of Yellow-Wood, tye it up in a Bag, and put it into the Kettle and let it boil very well, add to the Yellow-Wood, in proportion to every Pound of Silk, one Ounce of Blew-Wood and boil them together, then put in one Pound of Galls, fill up the Kettle with stale Gall Water; after which put in the allom'd and cleansed Silk, stir it about very well, and leave it in the Dye one night; next Morning Wring, Rince and Beat it, and then Rince it again in warm Water and Scheiet; and being deep enough Dyed, Cool, Wring, Rince, beat and hang it out to Dry.
Crimson Goat Colour.
CLEAN and put Water into the Kettle as above, and for every Pound of Silk, put in 1/8 of a Pound of Yellow-wood, one Ounce of Blew-wood; tye it up in a Bag and let it boil, adding thereto one Pound of Galls; then put in the Allomed and prepared Silks, stirring them very well and leaving them a whole Night in the Liquor, the Kettle being filled up, as before in the Musk Colour, with old Gall Water, next Morning take them out, and Rince, brown and dry as usual.
Blew Dye for Silk.
MAKE a Lye of three Pails-full of River or Rain Water, and clean Beech-ashes put into a Tub that may be close covered, two Hand-fuls of Wheat-bran, the eighth part of a Pound of Madder, the eighth part of a Pound of White Wine Tartar beaten to a Powder, one Pound of Pot-ashes, half a Pound of Indigo beaten small, stir it very well with a stick every twelve Hours for fourteen Days, till it tinges a sort of Green, and when the Dye is grown bright it must be stirred every morning; lay the Silk in a warm fresh Lye, wring it out and stir it about in the Dye some time afterwards, letting it hang in the Dye, according to the Custom of Dying, and besides the Blew Copper there ought to be another Copper full of Lye, that when the Silk is wrung out of the Dye, it may be rinced in it, and after it is wrung very clean out of that, it must be rinced again in River Water, beaten and dried as usual. If the Silk be moistened in this latter Lye or Suds before it is dyed, there is no need of the first abovementioned Lye. Several sorts of blew either lighter or darker at pleasure may be dyed with this Dye, according to the time they are left in it, and when the Copper grows low you may refill out of the Rincing fat putting in a proper quantity of Lye, but when the Blew Copper or fat grows weak then put in 1/4 of a Pound of beaten Indigo, 1/2 Pound of Pot-ashes, 1/2 an Ounce of Madder, one handful of Wheat-bran, 1/4 of an Ounce of Powder'd Tartar, and let stand 8 days without using it, stirring it every twelve Houres and then dye with it as before.
How to prepare a Blew Dye.
TAKE first a Kettle which will hold a Pail full of Water, set it over the Fire, put in a handful of unslaked Lime, two Pound of Indigo, one Pound of Potashes, boil them together an Hour, letting them dissolve. Then Clean up a Copper which must be enough to hold a Tun of Water, put in two Pound of Madder, two Pound of Bran, two Pound of Potashes, boil them a little and let them settle, and pour the Indigo through a sieve upon them, next percolate the Lye also into the Fatt, but the Indigo especially must be very well digested and dissolved, and the Copper filled with Water, covered close and a fire made under it; suffer it to grow Warm not Hot, stirring it about every two Hours till it ferments, and as soon as it begins to melt or digest, it also begins to turn Yellowish, and then you may Dye with it taking care that your hands are very clean, and free from all sort of grease. When you have Dyed with the Suds, you must afresh strengthen them with Pot-ashes, but not too much or too little, for if you are guilty of either extream, the whole Copper full of Dye is spoiled. Neither ought you to Dye too often at on time, but betwixt every time you Dye, the Liquor must be very well stirred.
An excellent Liquor to make the Blew Suds work in case it happens that they will not through same defect.
TAKE a quarter of a Pound of Madder, a quarter of a Pound of Pot-ashes, two handfuls of Bran; boil them together, and pour the Liquor into the Blew Suds, stir it well about and it will make it work; and if it be too much fattened with ashes, then hang a bag of wheat flower in it, and that will attract all the fatness to it, and if it be yet defective in any particulars add to it a small quantity of Saltpeter, and that will bring it to fermentation, as will also a little grounds of beer which indeed is one of the best remedies.
To Dye Blew.
THE Silks must be first boiled, beaten, rinced and prepared, whilst White, without Allom, then boiled in the Blew Suds and wrung out, and dryed, as the Greens are.
PUT fair Water into a clean Vessel, and to every Pound of Silk take a quarter of a Pound of Sope, and let the Silk boil in it for two Hours, then pour some rain Water in a Vessel, to which add a bowl full of the blew Lye, or if that be too much you may use half the quantity only at pleasure, then rince and dry the Silk.
THE Silk being first Allomed and rinced, for every Pound of Silk, boil one Pound of Broom flowers for a quarter of an Hour, then pour it into a Tub which must be large or small in proportion to the quantity of Silk, adding to it an equal quantity of Water, and after you have stirred the Silk in it, fill the Kettle again with Water, and boil it a quarter of an Hour, then put in the Silks after they are wrung out of the first into this second Suds, and if occasion require a stronger must be yet made, and the Silks stirred therein, till the colour be sufficiently heightened, then rinced out and hung to dry.
MUST be Dyed as the Straw Colour is, only when it is become reasonably deep, put it into the last Suds of the Orange Liquor, and stir it therein so long till you are sure tis grown deep enough, then rince and dry it.
Yellow Silk Dyes and first Blossom Yellow.
DYE it in the same manner as Gold Colour then heighten it with Orange Dying Suds, after which rince and dry it.
THIS Dye must first of all be tenderly handled; and done in weak Suds, and may be regulated by comparing the Colour with a Limon, which when done rince and dry it.
TAKE a clean Kettle, and for every Pound of Silk, take Six Ounces of Galls, and two Pound of Yellow-Wood; let the Yellow Wood boil an Hour before you put in the Galls, after which boil them together for half an Hour, and then the Silk, being first Allom'd and rinced, is to be put in and stirred in the Dye, then wrung out of the Kettle, with a little Potashes, and after tis again wrung it must be put into the Dye again, and left there to soak a whole Night; in the Morning rince, beat, and dry it.
Fillemot Silk Dyes.
FIRST Dye them in the last mentioned Yellow, then for every Pound of Silk, take 1/4 Pound of blew Provence Wood, boil it in a Bag as usual, half an Hour, in the quantity of a pail of Water, take the Bag out and let the Suds stand cooling till you can just bear your hand in it, then lay the Yellow Silk to Soak for a full Hour: Take it out, boil a sufficient quantity of powdered Soot in half a Pail of Water for half an hour, after which put in the Silk, and when you take it out rince it in a good strong lye of Wood-ashes and after that in River Water; then hang it out.
TAKE 1/4 Pound of Galls beaten small, boil them an Hour in half a Pail of Water; then put in a quarter of a Pound of Vitriol, a handful of Soot beaten small, and so put the Yellow Silks into it till it grows dark enough; then rince and dry.
CLEAN the Kettle very well, fill it half full of Water, and for every Pound of Silk take one Pound of Yellow-Wood, put it into a Bag and boil it in the Water for some time then add one Pound of Galls, and fill up the Kettle with stale or old Gall Water if you have it, but if not, with fair Water; then take the Silks off the Poles (they being first boiled Allomed and Rinced) put them into the Kettle, and boil them an Hour, then soak them in the Liquor a whole Night, and in the Morning wring them out, Rince and Beat them, after which they must be a little browned till they have become sufficiently deep.
A slight Fillemot.
FOR every Pound of Silk, take one Pound of Fucet-Wood, and half an Ounce of Pot-ashes; boil them together, and in order to render the Dye deep enough, it should be browned with a little black at Pleasure, when the Silks are deep enough dyed, Rince and Dry them.
Greens for Silks.
FOR every Pound of Silk, take a quarter of a Pound of English Allom, the eighth part of a Pound of White Wine Tartar beaten small, dissolve them together in hot Water, then put in the Silk, letting it continue in a whole Night, then take it out and dry it; after which boil a Pound of Broom in a Pail and a half of Water a full Hour, then take out the Broom, throw it away, and put in half an Ounce of beaten Verdigrease, stirring it about with the stick, then put in the Silk for a quarter of an Hour, take it out and let it be cold, then put in one Ounce of Pot-ashes, stir them about and put in the Silk again, keep it there till you think 'tis Yellow enough, then Rince it out and let it dry; after which put it into the blew Dye Fatt or Copper, and let it remain there till it becomes Green and dark enough, then Rince it; and by this means you will have a good Green, to be beaten and dry'd. You may let it lye a longer or less while in the Dye, according as you would have the Green, lighter or darker, for at first you will have but a faint Green.
LET it first be Dyed Straw-Colour pretty deep, clean Rinced and close wrung together with sticks, and then put about fifteen or twenty Hand-fulls of Skaines into the blew Dye Copper, tho' care must be taken that the quantity of Silk be proportioned to the strength of the Dye, and consequently that too many Skaines be not put in at once. When 'tis boiled enough, then take the Kettle off again, letting it rest for an Hour, after which you may work it again; and for every Hour allowing the same Interval, but particular Care must be taken, that one Handful be not kept longer in than another, and when it comes out of the Copper, it must be very well cooled, rinced and strongly wrung with the Sticks, and then dryed.
Parrot or Parroquit Green.
THIS being somewhat lighter than the other must be boiled in weaker Suds than the other, and as soon as it is dyed, it must be wrung and dryed as the other.
Green-Finch or Canary Bird Green.
THIS must be dyed as the Green, but to the last Suds a little Provence Wood ought to be added, adjusting the quantity according to the quantity of the Silk; after which it should be boiled in the blew Copper, wrung and Rinced.
THIS must also be dyed as the Green, only the last Suds must be encouraged with a little Provence-Wood Suds till it is deep enough; then wrung out as above.
This Colour being very light and bright, must be dyed as the Sea Green, and boiled in weak Suds, and managed as the Green, and Dryed.
BEING very light, must be performed as the Limon Colour and thrown into the Blew Suds, then wrung and Dryed.
Another Sea Green.
FOR every Pound of Silk, take three Ounces of Verdigreas beaten small, put it into good Wine or Sharp Vinegar, let it dissolve a whole night therein, set it over the Fire and make it hot, stirring it about with a Stick, and then put in the Silk, (taking care it do not boil) and let it remain three, two, one, or half an hour, according as your intended Dye is to be a deep, middling, or light Green, then put some boiling hot water into a Fat or Tub, to which add half an Ounce or an Ounce of Soap, and make a Ladder, when it Froths 'tis ready, then hang the Silks in it, let them drop afterwards, then Rince them in River Water, beat them Very well and dry them.
A Black Dye.
POUR six Pails of Water into the Copper to which add two pound of beaten Galls, four Pound of Sumach, a quarter of a Pound of Madder, half a Pound of Antimony beaten to impalpable Powder, four Ox Galls, 2 Ounces of Gum Tragacanth; let them dissolve a proper time, then put in a convenient quantity of dry Alder Bark powdered, four Pound of Vitriol, one Pound and a half of Filings of Iron; then pour off the Water as above, and let them boil together two hours, after which fill it up with a Pail full of Barley, or Rather Malt Water, which the Brewers draw off, and let it boil again half an Hour; then put in the Silk, let it boil gently for 1/2 an Hour, take it out and rince it in a Copper full of Water, and throw it again into the Dye ; and after that rince perfectly clean in River Water, dry it in the Air; then put it in the Dye once more, and suffer it to boil gently for half an Hour as before; rince it also in the Copper as before, and afterwards in River Water, and when dry, take good Lye and add to it the eighth part of a Pound of good Potashes, rince the Silk very well in this Liquor and lastly in River Water, then dry it, &c. This Dye will also dye all sorts of Woollen Stuffs.
An Additional improvement to the former Dye.
THE Silks being Dyed black as above, then take of Sal-Almoniac, Antimony beaten to Powder, two Ounces, Filings of Iron two Handfuls, put them together in a Copper that is drawn off, and hath been used before in the dying of the Silks; make it so hot that you cannot bear your hand in it, that this compound help to the Dye, may the better penetrate. Then take the black Silk well dryed, and put it into the Copper ; let it continue an Hour, till 'tis thoroughly moistned, then draw it through Water, wherein a proper quantity of Gum Tragacanth bath been dissolved, taking Care it be thoroughly wetted; then dry it as usual.
To give a Lustre to Black Silks.
AFTER they are Dyed, for every Pound of Silk, take one Ounce of Isinglass, which steep in Water, and pass the Silks through the Liquor and you will find them a very beautiful Lustre.
To Dye Silk a very fine Black.
TAKE a Copper of two Tun of Water, put in a Sack and half of Bark, six Pound of Provence Wood, six Pound of Sumach, boil them two Hours, then percolate them in a Fat, throw away the dregs, and fill up the Copper again, and then add fifteen Pound of Beaten Galls, one Pound of Agaric, three Pound of Pomgranate Shells, two Pound of Calamus, three Pound of Senna Leaves, two Pound of Gentian, and two of Marjoram; boil them together two Hours, then pass the Liquor through a Sieve, into the other Dye, and let it digest four Days, stirring it often ; then put it into the Copper, in which you intend to Dye, make a Fire under it, and when it is hot, put in two Pails full of Lye, and boil all together very well, this done, add one Pound of Antimony, four Pound of Honey, half a Pound of Borax, one Pound of Litharge of Silver, half a Pound of Litharge of Gold, one Pound of Verdigrease, which beat together and put into the Kettle, and when the Dye is warm, throw in thirty Pound of Lock-Smiths Filings, twenty Pound of Gum, and twenty Pound of Coperas: let it stand and settle eight days, stirring it when occasion requires; after which you may Dye with it, putting in a Quart of Brandy before you begin.
Receipt to make a Dye good.
WHEN it happens that the Dye begins to work off, you ought to consider what time of the Month it was made, and what time Work'd; Then put three pailfuls of Water into a Kettle, and add to it two Ounces of Borax, half a Pound or Agarick, a quarter of a Pound of Litharge of Silver, Four Ounces of Madder, half a Pint of Brandy, four Ounces of Verdigrease boil them together an Hour, and then put them into the Dye, and leave it to settle stirring often for Fourteen Days; Then make a Liquor of two Pound of Senna leaves, two Pound of Gentian. one Pound of Agarick, two Pomegranate shells, let them boil together for two Hours, and then pour them into the Dye; when this is done the Dye will remain good for an Hundred Years and the longer you Dye with it, 'twil yield the finer Black Colour, but you must take particular care that no soap get into it, for that will spoil it past all help. But it you see any grease or Tallow fall into the Dye, let it cool and take it clean out, and if you cannot see it make the Ladle red hot and stir the Dye about, and that will consume or burn up any greasiness; also fill two or three canvas Sacks with Bran, and hang them in the Dye, while it is hot, and let it continue two or three Hours, then take the Sacks out and cover the Dye with Brown Paper, and that will attract all the greasiness to it. But when the Dye begins to decay, whenever you Dye you must strengthen and refresh it in the morning with six Pound of Gum, six Pound of Copperas, four Pound of filings and a quarter of a Pail of Lye, and then dye with it three days six Pound of Silk at a time. When the Silk is dyed it must be boiled and Galled as follows. To every Pound of Silk take twelve Ounces of Gall, boil them two Hours and then lay the boiled Silk (first wrung) in the Liquor for two Nights and a Day.
A Black Dye, very useful to help or re-dye Hats, or other things which are apt to lose their Black Colour.
TAKE a quarter of a Pound of blew Provence Wood, boil it in half a pint of Hamburg Beer till it be half consumed; then add half a quarter of a Pound of Vitriol, half an Ounce of Verdigrease, take out the Wood and put in half a quarter of an Ounce of Gum Tragacanth, let it stand a while and use it when you will, by taking a little Brush which you dip into it, and so streak it over the Hat, Wool or Silk you will find it affords a fine lasting black.
How to stiffen Caffa and the like sorts of Silk, and give them a beautiful lustre.
TAKE half an ounce of Gum Arabick, a quarter of an Ounce of Gum Tragacanth; beat them very well, dissolve them in Water, and then boil a Pound of Linseed in Water so long till it becomes glutinous, then put in the Gum Water, suffer it to be hot, strain it through a Cloath, and with a Sponge smear it on the wrong side of the Silk, taking care that the piece of Silk be stretched, both long and broadways, otherwise it will be apt to rumple.
A good grey.
MAY be prepared as the Tawny Dye, and after the Silk is wrung out, rinced and beaten, if it be browned it becomes a good Grey.
THE Silk being first boiled and rinced, taken off the Sticks and put into a Vessel with cold Water; then put in a little of the former rincing Water and a few Galls, in proportion to the quantity of Silk, which you must stir about in the Liquor till it is browned, and then Rince and dry it.
TAKE fair Water, and for every Pound of Silk put in twelve Ounces of Galls, boil them two Hours, then pour them into another Vessel and stir the Silks in it about a quarter of an Hour, let them soak in it one Night, and in the Morning wring out, rince, beat and hang them upon the Poles; then make another Tub of Liquor with a sufficient quantity of Provence Wood Suds and cold Water, stir the Silks therein a quarter of an Hour, then let them be browned with Vitriol or Madder, or Copperas, and wrung out and drved.
The Silks boiled as in the Pearl Colour, with the Addition of a little blew Lye, for every Pound of Silk, add six Ounces of Sope and rince the Silk therein, wring them very well out of the Dye, and so hang them upon very white Poles, and after that it a close room, setting a Shovel or Pot of Fire under them, upon which strew Brimstone, shut the Room close, and next Morning dry them in the Air.
To Scent or Perfume Silks.
WHEN the Silk is Dyed, for every Pound of Silk, take an Ounce of Orris, dry it well, lay the Silks in Rose Water in a thick Sieve, and betwixt every Row, strew powder of Orris, and shut it up close in a box or Chest till next day, and the Silk will emit an agreeable Odour.
IN Dying of Woollens three things require our consideration, first the cleaning the Wool, secondly the preparing them to receive the Dye, and thirdly the Dying its self.
Of Flower or Starch Water.
HANG two Pails-full of fair Water over the Fire and put in two Hand-fulls of Starch or fine Flower, boil it a quarter of an hour; then put a pail of cold water into a little clean Tub and mix them together till the former becomes cold: this done put in a little Agarick and a little broken or dissolved Leven, and let it stand in order to grow sour.
Bran Water for slight Stuffes.
TO two Pail-fuls of Water take two Hats full of Wheaten Bran, boil them together for a quarter of an hour, then pour it into a clean Tub where pour on a Pail of water and throw in a Hand-full of Leven. The French call these Waters Eaux Sures, i.e., Acid or Sharp Waters, and by how much the sourer so much the better they are and fitter to attract the fatness of the Stuffes and dry it clean off, to make them limber and correct the roughness of the water.
How Stuffes must be Allomed, particularly for Reds.
FOR every Pound of Stuff, hang rain or Running-water over the Fire, adding one third part of the Starch or Bran-water; put in two Ounces of Allom, one Ounce of Tartar, when it boils or froths, first skim it, then put in the Stuff, stir it very well about for an Hour, then take it out and rince it. The quantity of Allom must always be double to that of Tartar; some Dyers reject Red Wine tartar, and use only White, others esteem the Red better especially for Crimsons and all brownish Red Dyes, and indeed it is very advantageous in all good Stuffes that require a little Red preparatory ground before they are Dyed Black.
What sort of Water is best to Dye with.
FOR the less valuable Stuffs and Dyes, running or River Water, whether of great Rivers or Rivulets, is commonly used. But the difference of Rivers is very well worth observing, for some are very clear and bright, others very thick and muddy, the first are the best, but the last if they are drawn out and left to settle for a Day and Night, are also useful, tho' not so good as the other.
In the next place we ought to consider whether the Water be hard and rough, or smooth and soft, and the proof to distinguish their Nature, is very easily made in the boiling of vegetables, particularly Pease or Lentils, of which if you take a measure and divide them equally into two parts, set one over the Fire in running or River Water, and the other in Spring Water, and let them boil an Hour, or an Hour and a half, and that Pot where the Peas are softest, to be sure, has the softest Water. But above all, we ought to avoid Nitrous Waters, and if we are forced to use them, the following Correction may be very proper.
To Soften Harsh or Rough Waters.
WHEN the Water is Nitrous, or some what a Kin to the nature of Lime, 'tis utterly unfit for Dying, but if we are oblig'd to use it, the following process will rid it of all the ill qualities. Fill a great Copper with the Water, put in two or three hand-fulls of wheat Bran, heat a Brick or piece of Plaister very hot, throw it into the Copper, cover it very close, let it stand twenty four hours, and then draw it off, it being perfectly fit for use. Or,
THROW always a handful of Wheat-bran into the first Suds, and let it boil, and you will find it corrects the Water, and renders the Stuffs more Limber.
Of several Particular Dyes.
To Dye Madder Red.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, two Pound and half of white Tartar, a quarter of a Pound of Fenugreek, two Quarts of Wheat Bran, boil all in the Copper, then put in the Stuff and let it boil two Hours and a half, after which take it out, cool it very well, and hang it out for one Night; then to dye it, take seven Pound of Madder, an Ounce and half of Aqua Fortis, a pjnt of Wheat Bran, put them into the Copper, stir them very well about, and when the Stuff hath been very well rinced in the Dye, then wind it very swift upon a Roller, and tumble it about the Copper for an Hour at least, taking care that the Fire keep it boiling hot ; after which take it out and rince it.
To Dye Red.
FIRST take three Pound of Allom, two Pound of Tartar, half a Pint of Wheat Bran, in proportion to twenty three English Yards of Cloath, then put more Water into the Copper, and add 6 Pound of good Madder and a Glass full of Vinegar, let the Dye be hot and then put in the Cloath, stirring it about till it hath sufficiently imbibed the Red Colour, then Rince it out, and you will find it of a beautiful Red, always pre-supposing that the Cloath bath been first boiled three Hours in Allom and tartar.
Genua Madder Red.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, one Pound and half of Tartar, boil the Stuff in it an hour and a half, then pour off the Water and put fresh Water into the Kettle; make a Liquor of ten Pound of Madder, four Ounces of Pot ashes, and some Urine, and boil it off when it hath dissolved one Night.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, and half a Pound of Tartar, let it boil two Hours, then take out the Stuff, let it cool, then add one Pound and half of Visel Wood or Yellow Flowers, three Pound of Madder, one Pound of Galls, put them all together into the Kettle, and let them boil an Hour and half, and wind the Stuff very close upon the Roller, and if it be Red enough take it out and cool it ; then put in two Pound of Copperas, and if you can dissolve it with warm Water, you may add a little more, then put in the Cloath, letting it continue till it is enough, then rince it as usual.
Another Nutmeg Colour.
TAKE of green Walnut Shells two or three Quarts, or else Walnut-tree Root, put it into the Copper, and when it boils put in the Stuffs and Rollers, in a convenient time take them out and cool them, and let the Ingredients boil again, then put in the Cloath again, boil it half an Hour, take it out and cool it; then add a Pound of Galls, three Pound of Madder, put them together with the Stuff into the Copper, boil them an Hour, then take the Cloath out and cool it; then put two pound more of Copperas into the Kettle, stir it well, put in the Cloath again, let the Fire be well lookt after, and the Stuff stirred about till the colour is deep enough ; then rince it, &c.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, two Pound of Tartar, boil them in the Copper, then put in the Stuff, boil it two Hours, take it out, and put in together five Pound of Madder, and a Pint of Wheat Bran, stirring the Liquour three quarters of an Hour till it is boiling hot ; then draw off the Water putting in Fresh Water, and put in a Pound of Galls, and the Cloth; which boil for an Hour, then take it out again, and put three Pounds of Copperas into the Kettle and then put in the Stuff again, and stir it about till it is sufficiently Dyed, then rince it.
Cinnamon or Nutmeg Colour.
TAKE two Pound of Allom, half a Pound of Tartar, and some sharp Lye, boil the stuff an Hour therein, then pour off the Water Putting fresh into the Kettle, make the Flota of three Pound of Madder, a sufficient quantity of Tartar ashes, three Pound of Alder-Bark, boil them together and Dye the Cloth for an Hour. Some Dye it pale, but if you would have it deep add two or three Pound of Copperas, and you will have a very good Nutmeg Colour.
Another Nutmeg Colour.
FIRST boil the Allom and Tartar, as for the red Dye, then half Madder it, and add to the Madder a quarter of a Pound of Galls to fifteen English Yards of Stuff. Care must be taken that at most it be not above half Dyed Red, after that pass it through the Copperas till it is dark enough, then rince it, after that pass it through the Yellow Dye, and you will have a beautiful Nutmeg Colour.
Deep or Brown Red.
IF you would Dye a Brown-red, after you have Dyed the Stuff Red, mix slaked Lime and Brasil together, boil them, and then pass the Stuff through it once or oftner. Several use Pot-ashes Lye, but that sometimes renders the Dye too deep or Brown, and Lime is really preferable. You must take particular care in this Operation, for if you Work it too slowly it is very apt to spot.
HAIR or Goat Colour is of several different sorts, as Light Reddish, or yellowish; so that indeed 'tis impossible to determine, which is preferable, each of them being saleable, and in good Esteem, and every Man Dyes which he pleases. Some do it with Alder-bark, Walnut nut Shells, green Oak chips, otherwise they crumble like dust. They take for their first Suds two Pound and half of Allom, and one pound of Tartar, and boil it for an Hour and half, then pour off the Water. Others first prepare the Stuffs with Galls and Copperas, and Dye them Red, and then Yellow: to Redden them, they use seven Pound of Madder, and, as I have said, then pass them through the Yellow Copper and after through the Copperas and Gall Suds, so that whatever of these Colours you would have Dyed, should be ordered after a pattern the Workman should follow.
To Dye English Red.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, two Pound of White Tartar Wine, three Ounces and half of Ceruse, a pint of Wheaten Bran, and boil the Cloth in this Liquour an Hour and an half, and leave it to soak a whole Night in the suds; and after it is rinced out, take for every piece of Cloth, six Pound of good Madder, two Ounces of Orleans, an Ounce and half of Termerick, two Ounces of Aquafortis. Let the Cloth remain three quarters of an Hour upon the Roller, and you will have a good English Red, then rince it out.
DYE it as Flesh Colour is done, only it must be deepened, then pour fresh Spring Water into the Copper, to which add Lye of Pot-ashes, and Lye made with Calcined Tartar; Stir then; well together, and let the Cloth soak two Hours stirring it about every quarter of an Hour, and you will have a very good Crimson: But if the Cloth doth not take the Dye kindly, you ought to add more Lye.
To Dye Scarlet.
FOR every forty Pound weight of Stuff, take three Pound of Madder, one Pound and half of Allom, three Ounces of White Wine Tartar, three Ounces of Arsenick, two Ounces of Ceruse, and boil the Cloth in it one Hour and a quarter, then throw away the Water and put fresh into the Kettle, adding a quart of Wheaten-bran, then rince the Stuff in River Water, then pass it through the branny Water, take it out and make a Liquor of three Pound of Verdigreace, an Ounce and half of White Wood called Immick and rince the Stuff in it several times, the Immick shavings being before well stirred about, then put into the Yellow Liquor, five Pound of Madder, two ounces of Storax, and suffer them to dissolve for one whole Night, after which the Stuff must be stirred about for one Hour, always taking care to keep a good Fire under the Copper, all which well observ'd will produce a very good Scarlet.
Spanish Flesh Colour.
TAKE four Ounces of Ceruse, three Ounces and half of Arsenick, one Pound of Calcin'd Tartar, a Pound of Allom, and boil the Cloth two Hours in this Liquour, then take it out leaving the suds over the Fire; next Morning prepare a Liquour from two Pound of good Leather shreds, a quarter of a Pound of Orlean, the eighth part of a Pound of Turmerick, and an Ounce and half of Aqua Fortis.
AND when you would Dye Silk or Linnen Cottons with Brasil Wood, take a quarter of a Pound of Brasil. and divide it into two parts, and in one part, for a pair of Cotton Stockens, take one Ounce of Galls, and to the other part add an Ounce of Allom, and pass them through each Dye twice, till the Dye become clear as Water, and then 'tis wonderful to see how beautiful the Flesh Colour appears.
Another Flesh Colour.
TAKE three Pound and a half of Allom, three Ounces of Arsenick, four Ounces of Cerase, and boil the Cloth an Hour in it; pour off the Water, rince the Stuff in running Water, and make a Liquor of eight Pound of Madder and two Ounces of sal Armoniac, suffer them to dissolve for one Night, then boil a little and add one Ounce of Pot-ashes, then pour some of it upon the Stuff in the other Kettle, and as often as you pour it on so often you Dye, so that you may leave off when 'tis light Dyed, or deepen it at pleasure, and if you would have it very deep, mix an Ounce and half of Borax with the Potashes, and that will give it a beautiful Lustre also.
To prepare for the Indigo Dye.
FIRST you must have the ground of a Dye, and put it into the Kettle, and make it as warm as you can bear it; then prepare a Lye of Pot-ashes.
First fill your Kettle with Water, and make it boil, then put in the Pot-ashes: let it boil, then put in a bowl full of Bran and three Handfuls of Madder, let all boil a quarter of an Hour, then take and remove the fire, then beat the Indigo to an impalpable Powder in a Morter, then pour some of the Lye upon it, let it settle and pour the Indigo Lye into the Blew Dye Copper, then beat the remainder again, let it settle and pour the Lye into the Blew Copper, and so proceed till you have turned your proper quantity of Indigo to Lye, which must all be poured into the Copper, then follows.
The Indigo Dye.
FIRST of all, to every quarter of a Pound of Indigo, add one Pound and half of Potashes, a quarter of a Pound of Madder, three Hand-fills of Wheat-bran, suffer it to boil the Eighth part of an Hour, then let it settle, decant the clear part of the Suds or Liquor, and bray the Indigo very fine, which mix with a sufficient quantity of fresh Woad or stale Indigo, then pour the Suds upon it and let it boil twenty four Hours, and 'tis ready to Dye withal.
To prepare the Dye Copper.
FIRST throw in a Pint of Wheaten bran, then the Woad, after that two Pound of Madder, then fill the Copper up with Water, and let it boil three Hours, then pour it off into the Fatt, let it stand till it comes to a due consistence, then boil the Copper full of Water, and pour it into the Dye Suds, and covering it warm, let it settle for two Hours, then look after it every Hour, till it becomes Blew, then according to the quantity of Stuffs you have to Dye, put in three or four pound of Indigo, and three Pound of Pot-ashes, let it settle and Dye with this Liquor, taking care always to stir it ; cover it close and let it stand two Hours after, every time you have Dyed with it, after which you may Dye with it again, adding a sufficient quantity of Lime if you use it often, always letting it rest two Hours and then adding the lime and stirring it.
To Dye Brimstone Yellow.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, one Pound of Tartar, three Ounces of Salt, and boil the Stuff in these Materials one Hour, throw away the Water, then make a Liquor of Yellow Broom, laying it in the same order as Straw, in Brew Houses, then add Lye-ashes, and draw the Stuff through the Dye three or four times very quick, to do which dextrously four Men are required; and you will find it of a fine Crimson Colour.
To Dye Lemmon Colour.
TAKE three Pound of Allom, three Ounces of Ceruse, three Ounces of Arsenick, and boil the Stuff one Hour and half, pour off the Water, then put in Fresh, and in the same Kettle make a Liquor of sixteen Pound of Green Dyers Wood, three Ounces of Pot-ashes, two Ounces of Turmerick, let them settle and boil, then pass the Stuff quick through it; and you will find it of a Lemmon Colour.
To Dye Olive Colour.
IT must be done as the Brimstone Yellow, afterwards prepare Suds of Galls and Coperas, (but not strong) through which pass the Stuffs two or three times, according as you desire the Dye, Light or Deep; and it will produce an Olive Colour.
To Dye Black.
TAKE two Pound of Galls, half a Pound of Brasil, two Pound and half of Madder, boil the Cloth three Hours with them, then take it out, cool it very well, then add an Ounce and half of Sal-Armoniac, and boil the Stuff gently half an Hour, rolling it upon the Roller three times every quarter of an Hour, then take it out and cool it; after which add two Pound and an half of Copperas, one third part of a Pound of Brasil, a quarter of a Pound of Tallow; boil the Stuff in it very well an Hour and half; and you will find it of a beautiful black Colour.
How to prepare the Silver Dye.
FIRST for every fifteen Yards of Stuff, take half a Pound of Allom, and three quarters of Fenugreek, boil them half an Hour, then add one Pound of Pot-ashes, and half a Pound of Brasil, and boil the Stuffs therein a quarter of an Hour.
To give Stuffs a beautiful Lustre.
FOR every piece of Stuff weighing 8 Pound, take a 1/4 of a Pound of Linseed, boil it half an Hour, then percolate it through a Cloth and let it stand till it is turn'd almost to a Gelly. then take an Ounce and half of Gum dissolve it twenty four Hours, then mix the Liquors and put the Cloth into this glutinous mixture, take it out, dry it in the shade and press it; if doing this once be found not sufficient, repeat the Operation; and you will find it give a very beautiful Lustre to the Stuffs.
FOR every twelve Pound of Stuff, take a good handful of Wheaten Bran, one Pound and half of Allom, three quarters of a Pound of Tartar, half an Ounce of Turmerick, boil the Stuffs in them two Hours, decant the Water, fill the Copper again, and rince the Stuffs, then add one Pound and a half of Madder, the third part of which must be before dissolved, and then put into the Suds, to which must be added a little beaten white Starch and Vinegar, then roll the Stuff upon the Roller in it, till it is deep enough dyed.
HANG over the Fire an equal quantity Of Starch Water, and Rain Water, and to every Pound of Stuff, put in two Ounces of Allom, one Ounce of beaten Tartar; and when it boils put in the Stuff, letting it boil for one Hour, and stirring it well about then take it out and rince it very well, then hang the Liquor over the Fire again, and for every Pound of Stuff, put in three Ounces of Brasil, a few Pot-ashes, boil it half an Hour, then put in the Stuffs and boil them till they are sufficiently tinged; upon which take them out and dry them as usual.
To Dye Madder Red or light Tawny.
SOAK the Red Stuffs one or two Nights in the Black Dye, roll them and work them well about, to prevent their growing Black; and you may take them out when they are dyed of a Tawny, as light or dark as you would have them; and rince them, &c.
Brown or Tawny.
PUT a Handful of Madder into a Kettle-full of hot Water, stir it very well about, let it stand a while; moisten the Stuff therewith, then roll it up and put it into the Kettle upon the Roll, and when you find that the Colour does no longer fall upon it, then add yet two handfuls of Madder, and let it cool, and when you find it boiled to a half Red Colour, throw in a Pail-full of the Black Dye into the Madder Suds, stir them together, clap a Wood Fire under the Kettle, for when it hath its proper Heat, it turns the better to brown; if it be not dark enough, throw in another Pail of the Black Dye or more, till it becomes as YOU would have it; then work the Stuff in it very well upon or with the Roller to prevent its spotting. This is an experjenc’d and approved Dye.
Another sort of Tawny.
FIRST give the Goods a Blew Ground, which must be either Light or Deep, according as you design the Tawny. Then Allom them, letting them boil an Hour in the Allom Water; let them stand till cold, rince them clean out, pass them through the Madder Red Dye, and they will turn to a Light Tawny as Light or as Deep as you desire, according to your Blew as above: then rince and clean them out.
FIRST Dye the Stuffs to a Madder Red, then take the Dye off the Fire, and put a quart of Black Dye into it, for every Pound of Stuff, heat it and put the Stuffs therein, and work it so long, till it bath sufficiently taken the Dye; then cool it, and it becomes a lasting Dye.
To Dye Tawny.
DYE the Goods Red, then boil them in the remainder of the Black Dye, bo'iled up (after it hath been used) till they are dark enough, then cool and rince them: But if you desire to Dye a Light Tawny, take half of the Black Dye and half Water, and it will be consequently so much thinner and weaker.
FIRST Tinge the Stuffs Yellow, with a quartern and half of Madder to a Pound of Goods, Allom and work them till they are sufficiently beautiful, then rince them well out, and put into the Kettle a Tub of stale Urine, and boil it again till they take the Dye; then roll the Stuffs three or four times through it; and rince them very clean.
TAKE clear fine Flower Water and heat it, then put in for every Pound of Stuff, two Ounces of Allom, one Ounce of Tartar in Powder, boil them together; then put in the Stuff, stirring it about for an Hour, then cool and rince it, then heat some Fair Water, and for every Pound of Stuff, take two Ounces of Brasil; boil it half an Hour, then put the rinced Stuff into it, and work it so long, till it is sufficiently tinged Red, then take it out, and add to the Dye an Ounce of Vitriol, dissolve it very well, then work the Stuffs so long in it as you shall judge it proper; then rince it out.
A Purple Dye.
FOR every Pound of Stuff, put into a sufficient quantity of Fair Water, two Ounces of Allom, one Pound of Tartar, and boil the Cloth in it an hour, take it out, cool, and rince it; then warm some more clean water, to which add three Ounces of Brasil Wood; boil it half an Hour, then work the Stuffs in it till it becomes as Red as desired, upon which take them out, and put two Ounces of Pot-ashes into the Dye, stir it well about, and put in the Red Stuff once more, roll it Off and On the Roller, that it do not spot, then cool and rince it.
Crimson Flesh Colour.
FOR every Pound of Stuffs, take a proper quantity of Water, into which put half a Pint of Starch Water, and then the Cloth, with the usual quantity of Allom and Tartar, Allom it, rince it out clean and tinge it Yellow, then take of Fair and Starch Water equal quantities, boil and scum it, pour a little of it into a very clean Kettle, to which for every Pound of Stuff, add 1/2 an Ounce of Chochineal, boil it in the Kettle, and when it boils add half an Ounce of Tartar, and fifteen Grains of Turmerick, half boil it with the Cloath, till it becomes bright enough, and next day rince it out.
A Very good Crimson.
FOR every Pound of Wool take half an Ounce of Cochineal & half a quartern of Oatmeal or Wheaten Bran, having first dissolved it Eight days in Water that it may become sour, and when you intend to Dye, pour the Bran Water into the Kettle, and then (having the Night before dissolved the Cochineal in Warm Water) clap a good Fire under the Kettle to heat the Liquor, and put it into it by little and little till there is no more of the Solution left, stirring it about all the while; when it begins to boil, then add a proportional quantity of Lye and pass the Cloth through three times, or take half a quartern of wine Lees or Ashes which throw into the warm Suds, and pass the Goods through it till they have sufficiently taken the Dye.
ALLOM the Goods as usual, heat a sufficient quantity of Fair Water, and for every Pound of Wool or Stuff take an Ounce and a half of Cochineal and as much Tartar, the former being as before first sufficiently dissolved, boil them together, put in the Goods to be Dyed Stirring them about for an hour and half, then cool and rince them out.
An Extraordinary good Crimson.
FOR every Pound of Woolen ware, take half a pail-ful of clean rain Water, put in two Ounces of fine White-wine Tartar, beaten very fine, and two Ounces of the best white Allom, boil them together an Hour, stir the Ware about, then hang it out, let it dry and rince it very well in clean Water. Then take clean rain Water, and after 'tis heated in the Copper, take out a pail or a little tub-ful, into which put an Ounce of Cochineal, beaten to an impalpable Pouder, dissolve it a little, and then pour it into the Kettle again, taking care the Cochineal be rinced very well out of the pail; then take of Powdered White-wine Tartar an ounce and half, of red Arsenick beaten to Powder a dram, stir them well together, put them into the Copper and then the Ware after them, adding a quarter of an Hour after two Ladles full of Wheaten Bran, stirring them well together continually, let them boil one quarter of an Hour; then take the Ware out cool and rince it. But note that when you put in the bran you must put in a spoonful of burnt Wine lees, which will give the Ware an extraordinary Lustre.
FIRST Dye your Goods Light blew, still observing that the lighter your blew the finer your Purple. Then take Cochineal and Tartar of each an Ounce and half, and work it as other Crimson, and you will find it become a very beautiful Colour, and by the Addirg of a little Bran-dye the lustre will become remark ably clearer and brighter.
THE Ware must first be Dyed of a tawny faint blew, then rinced clean, and the Suds thrown into the Purple Suds, after their have been used in Dying. These Suds being of very little value, and otherwise useless, produce a good Lavender Dye at a cheap rate.
Lavender grey, or Lavender Color.
HEAT a proper quantity of clean Rain-water in the Copper, and for every Pound of Ware take an Ounce of blew Lack beaten small, of beaten Galls, and vitriol half an Ounce of each, boil them together and put in your Ware, let it boil half an Hour. This Dye is proper for slight Ware, as Stockens and course Stuffs, but not for the better sort.
To Dye a Beautiful Violet.
HEAT clean rain Water, and Allom your Ware with half a Pound of Allom, two Ounces of Tartar, and a Handful of Madder, for every four Pound weight of Ware, stir these ingredients well together, and when they are dissolved and begin to boil, put in what you intend to Dye, boil it half an Hour, take it out cool and rince it. Put fresh Water to your Liquor, and add a quarter of a Pound of brown Wood in a clean bag, boil it an Hour and half, then put in your Ware again, and boil it an Hour and half, take it out, then put into the Hot Suds one quarter of a Pound of Verdigrese, it being first dissolved in warm Water, stir it well about, then put in your ware again, stirring it about for a quarter of an Hour, till it begins to boil; then take it out, cool and rince it, and you will find it of as beautiful a Violet Colour, as ever was Dyed.
Another Violet Dye.
ALLOM your Work as usual, with one half Starch Water, and for every Pound take two Ounces of Allom, one Ounce of Tartar, boil them together an Hour, then hang other fresh Water over the Fire, and when it is hot, for every Pound of Goods take two Ounces and half of Brasil shavings, and a sufficient quantity of great Pot-ashes; boil them together a quarter of an Hour, then put in your Goods, keep them in till they take the Dye, then cool and rince them.
A Scarlet Dye.
FOR every two Pound of Goods to be Dyed, take two Ounces of Tartar, one Ounce of Salarmoniack, pulverize them, and when the Water begins to boil, put them in, then take two Ounces of White Starch, half an Ounce of Gummi Gotta, put them both into the Water, then add one Ounce of Cochineal, let them boil, and lastly put in an Ounce of Aquafortis. This done put in the Ware, boil them altogether, take it out, cool and rince it.
ALLOM your Goods as for Crimson in River Water, and after it hath boiled two Hours, let them hang a whole Night, without rincing, but rince them out in the Morning. To Dye them, take clean Bran-water, boil and Skim it clean, then for every Pound of Ware, put in an Ounce of pulverized Tartar, half of which must be first mixed with half an Ounce of Cochineal, and when the Liquor where the remaining half of the Tartar is hath boiled, then put in the Cochineal, &c. Boil them together, afterwards, adding half an Ounce of Aquafortis wherein a small quantity of Sal-armoniac, and not bigger than a Pea, hath been dissolved, which is to be put in when the Goods have boiled about a quarter of an Hour: then let them all boil together for a little while, then cool and rince out the Goods.
SET a Copper Kettle over the Fire with some Rain Water, then for every Pound of Ware, put into a Tin Pot an Ounce and half of Aquafortis, an Ounce and half of pulverized Tartar, and an Ounce of Sal-Armonjack: Or if you have a little Scarlate Liquor, put in a little Cochineal. After this put them into the Water, stir them well together, put in the Goods, boil them for one Hour, take them out, cool and rince them, then Dye them as follows:
For every Pound of Ware, take one Ounce of Cochineal, two Ounces of Tartar, a quarter of an Ounce of Sal-Armoniack both pulverized, stir them very well; and put in the Work; boil it an Hour and half with the abovementioned ingredients, prepar'd as above, and Rain Water, rolling the Stuff upon the Roll as occasion requires, then take it out, cool and rince it, and you will have a beautiful Scarlate.
How to Dye a piece of Cloath of twenty six Pound weight, the English Madder Red.
TAKE two Pound and half of AIlom, one Pound of pulverized White Wine Tartar, boil them in Water, and when it is proper to put in your wet Cloath, then put half a Pound of tempered Aquafortis into the Suds; then put in the Cloath, stir it about very well and very swift, boil it two Hours, and let it remain in the suds twelve Hours, then rince it out. To Finish it, Take four Pound of Madder, an Ounce and half of Gummi Gutta, an Ounce and half of purified Pot-ashes, one Pound of Wheat-bran; mix them in Water and pour them with their Liquor into the Suds, then put in the Cloath, stir and work it as proper that it be not spotted, and you will find this an extraordinary Dye.
Another sort of English Red which is deeper.
BOIL your Ware to be Dyed, with two Ounces of Allom, two Ounces of Tartar, two Ounces of Aquafortis, tempered with two Ounces of fine Tin, a quarter of a Pound of Madder; this is the proportion to one Pound of Wool or Stuff, and ought to be augmented in proportion to the weight of the Cloath, only the quantity of Tin must not be more than doubled to twenty Pound of Ware, for a large quantity of Aquafortis may be as well tempered with two Ounces, as with a quarter of a Pound: Then boil the Cloath two Hours in it, stirring it as much as is proper, cool it in the Suds and rince it out. And to Finish the Dye, for every Pound of Ware, take a quarter of a Pound of Madder, or 1/2 a 1/4 of a Pound, according as you would have the Dye deep, a 1/4 of a Pound of blew Wood, 1/2 an Ounce of Allom. Stir the Cloath very well in it, and when you find it takes the Dye, add half an Ounce of purified Pot-ashes, and stir the Stuff well about that it do not spot, This Dye appears very beautiful to the Eye, but all the Wood Dyes are apt to stain very much, not only by Wine, Urine, Vinegar; but by dirt, foul water, &c.
Common or slight Crimson.
The Ingredients being proportioned, to one Pound of Ware.
TAKE two Ounces of Allom, two Ounces of White Wine Tartar, one Ounce of Aqua fortis, tempered with half an Ounce of ENGLISH Tin, a quarter of a Pound of Madder and a quarter of a Pound of Blew Wood. Boil your Stuffs well in the Liquor, let them cool, and rince them out.
To Finish the Dye.
TAKE a quarter of a Pound of Blew Wood, three ounces of Pot-ashes, stirring the Stuffs very quick in the Liquor. This Dye looks very well and may serve for slight Stuffs, and those designed for linings, and kept from Sweat, Wet and Weather but it quickly fades.
How to Dye a very fine Crimson.
FOR every eight pound of Wool or Stuffs, boil six gallons of Water or rather more, to which add eight Handfuls of Wheat Bran. let it settle for one Night, stirring it very well, and in the Morning decant the Liquor clear, or rather percolate it, that it may be perfectly clean: Take half of this Liquor, and mix with a much clean Water, that the Stuffs or Wool may be worked commodiously in it. Boil this mixt Liquor and put into it one Pound of Allom, and half a Pound of Tartar, boil them very well, then put in the Ware and let it boil two Hours, stirring it (especially if Wool) from top to bottom continually.
To Finish it,
BOIL the remainder of the Bran Water with an equal quantity, or rather more fair Water, and when it boils throughly, put in four Ounces of Cochineal, and two Ounces of pure White Wine Tartar pulverized; stir it about, taking Care that it doth not run over or boil too fast, and when 'tis very well boiled, put in your Ware, and stir it about till you fix that it hath equally taken the Dye in all places, then cool and rince it out.
To Dye Scarlate or Nacarat (i.e. a lively Red) the quantity of Twenty seven Pound of Woollen Ware.
THE Ware must be very well cleansed then take two Pound of Tartar, six Ounces of Sal Gemmae, four ounces of Sal Armoniack, two Pound of Aquafortis tempered with Tin, three Ounces of Cochineal; when you put these into the Kettle, put in the Stuff also, and let them boil together half an Hour, then rince out the Ware.
To Finish it,
TAKE one Pound and a quarter of Cochineal, one Ounce of Sal Gemmae, one Ounce of Tartar, half a Pound of tempered Aquafortis, and boil the Ware gently with all these ingredients, then rince it out.
N.B.-You may at pleasure use more of the Sal Armoniack and less of the Sal Gemmae: Also, if you take but one Pound of Cochineal, and the Goods be well stirred, cooled and rinced, the Dye will be about as good as the other way.
A Scarlate Dye for one Pound of Wool.
TAKE two Ounces of Aquafortis, one Ounce of ENGLISH Tin, two Ounces of white Wine Tartar, an Ounce and half of Allom, half a Dram of Cochineal, and boil the Wool with them half an Hour, then cool and rince it out.
To Finish it,
TAKE an Ounce and half of Cochineal; but if you would Dye Crimson, add a little Allom, and a quarter of an Ounce, or less of Salarmoniack.
A Scarlet Dye, proportioned to three Pound of Wool.
TAKE four Ounces of tempered Aquafortis, four Ounces of Tartar, one Ounce of Salarmoniac, one Ounce of Sal-gemmae, one Ounce of Cochineal: boil the Wool with all these, half an Hour, then cool it and add to the Suds an Ounce and half of Allom, and when it begins to boil, to compleat the Work, put in two Ounces of Cochineal. This Dye is deeper and more enclined to Purple, than the former, and consequently better.
To Dye Sixty two Pound of Ware a Scarlate Colour.
TAKE two Pound of tempered Aquafortis, two Pound of Tartar, half a Pound of Salarmoniack, three Ounces of Cochineal; boil the Cloth with these half an Hour, then cool it, and put into the Suds, one Pound of red or Roach Allom, as well as the Cloth a second time; boil them three quarters of an Hour, and so Cool and rince it out.
To finish it,
DO two Pound of Cochineal, with which boil the Stuff, a quarter of an Hour, and you will find the Colour extraordinary good.
To Dye a Lighter sort of Scarlate.
FOR every four Pound of Ware, take five Ounces of Aquafortis, as much White Wine Tartar, an Ounce and half of Cochineal, boil the Goods to be Dyed with it three quarters of an Hour, take them out, pour fresh Water into the Kettle and finish the Work as follows:
Take three Ounces of Cochineal, three Ounces of Starch, two Ounces and a half of tempered Aquafortis, three Ounces of Christal Tartar, an Ounce and half of Gummi Gutta; boil the Water with these ingredients half an Hour, and the Work is perfectly done.
All sorts of Wool and Woollen Wares must be well wetted before they are put into the Suds; and this caution is more especially necessary in the Scarlate Dye.
To Dye a Natural, or Lively Crimson.
FIRST the Ware must be well wetted, and then for every four Pound to make the Suds, take two Ounces and half of tempered Aqua-fortis, three Ounces and half of Tartar, eight Ounces of Allom, an Ounce and half of Cochineal, with all which boil the Goods half an Hour, then cool and rince them.
To Finish the Dye.
TAKE four Ounces of Cochineal, three Ounces of Starch, three Ounces of White-wine Tartar, half an Ounce of White Arsenick; boil them together a full quarter of an Hour, then put in your Ware, boil it somewhat above half an Hour, or till it hath well and equally taken the Dye.
To Dye thirteen Pound of Woollen Ware, of a very deep Scarlet Flesh Colour.
TAKE two Pound of Aqua-fortis, tempered with eight Ounces of Tin; two Pound and half of White Wine Tartar, half a Pound of Salgemm, four Ounces of Sal-armoniack: boil the are with all the ingredients half an Hour, then rince it out ; and to finish it, Add one Pound and a quarter of Cochineal, one Ounce of Sal-armoniack; boil the Ware with them a quarter of Hour, and the Colour will be very good.
Another sort of Scarlet for Twenty Six Pound of Woolen Ware.
TAKE four Pound of White Wine Tartar, one Pound of Allom, one Pound and half of Aqua-fortis tempered with six Ounces of ENGLISH Tin, two Ounces of Cochineal; boil the Ware with these an Hour, then cool and rince it. To Finish it,
ADD one Pound and a quarter of Cochineal, boil it one quarter of an Hour, then put in the Ware and boil it a quarter of an Hour, then rince it out.
You may at pleasure use more Allom, in the preparatory suds, as one Pound and half or two Pound; and you may also add, half an ounce of Cochineal, namely two Ounces and a half, and use less of the Tin, as four Ounces.
To Dye Purple.
FIRST the Ware must be blewed in the Suds, which hath been worked till it turn to a sort of a half Green, then boiled three quarters of an Hour, with twelve Ounces of Aquafortis, half a Pound of Sal-Armoniack, two Pound of White Wine Tartar, two Pound of Roach Allom, and then rinced out.
To Finish it,
FOR Twenty Six Pound of Ware, (to which proportion the Suds above are adjusted) take one Pound and a quarter of Cochineal, and if it be feared that will make it too red, it may be corrected with two Ounces of Pot-ashes, and three Ounces of Lacke. If the Aquafortis be tempered, or the Work performed in a Tin Kettle, or less Sal-armoniack used, the colour inclines the more to the Blew.
An English Liquor, to scowr Scarlet.
TAKE one Pound of Wheat-bran, boiled in as much Water, as is requisite to Work, ten or twelve Pounds of Ware; at length add to three ounces of Allom, three Ounces of Florentine Orrice-root pulverized ; boil them together, pour them into a clean Fat, or cooler, and let them settle till the Liquor is clear, then heat the said clear Liquor in a Kettle, and Scowr the Scarlate with it, and you will find a good Effect.
To Dye a good Crimson Violet.
THE Ware must first be Dyed a deep blew Green, then boiled as for right Crimson, rinced very clean out of the suds, and finished With three Drams of Cochineal, in proportion to one Pound of Ware; and so you will have a right good colour.
A Pearl Colour Dye proportioned one Pound of Wool.
TAKE one Ounce of blew Lack, half an Ounce of blew Wood, half an Ounce of burnt Allom. The blew Wood being first boiled a quarter of an Hour in a bag, and then taken out; the Lack sifted through a Hare sieve; the Liquor Skimmed, and very well stirred, for a quarter of an Hour, and helped with a quarter of an Ounce of Pot-ashes.
A deep Fillemot Dye proportioned to fourteen Pound of Wool.
TAKE five Ounces of Galls, eight Ounces of Fucette or Virette Wood, four Ounces of Madder and one of Gummi Gutta: when the Dye is boiled, stir the Ware in it, till the Dye hath sufficiently penetrated it. If you desire it brighter, then use only three Ounces of Galls, and three Ounces of Madder, and add two Ounces of Verdigrease. Or otherwise, take four Ounces of Fucette Wood, two Ounces of Galls, half an Ounce of Madder, and half an Ounce of Vitriol.
To Dye a Peace of Rash Musk-colour.
TAKE half a Pound of Galls, one pound of Yellow Wood, one Pound of Vitroil and stir the Stuff in it as usuall.
A Lasting modest and neat Purple brown.
THE Cloth (for slight Stuffs won't bear the price of this Dye) must first be Dyed blew, either Light or Dark in proportion to the Colour you desire to Dye, then boil it first with Galls and Madder, or with Galls alone: lastly with Copperas alone. When it is well boiled with Madder, or with Copperas and Madder, or when it is boiled with Galls alone, if it be perfectly finished, it will not take any stain from Wine, Vinegar or Urine.
On the contrary all Colours Dyed with Wood, as for Example the Red or the Blew, wherein Brasil is used, stain with the weakest acids, which cause in them a very remarkable change. Yellow Wood indeed is a sort of exception to this General Rule for its Dye does not Change so soon.
A Dark Gray
FOR every Pound of Woolen Ware take a quarter of a Pound of Copperas, and a quarter of a Pound of Brown Wood (or *Walnut Tree.)
* The Translator supposes, he means that because there is no Wood directly so called in the German Language, and Walnut Tree is used in the Brown Dye.
To Finish it,
TAKE two Ounces of Brown Wood, and half an Ounce of Copperas.
A Musk Colour.
FOR every Pound of Wool take two Ounces of Copperas, two Ounces of Allom, two Ounces of Tartar, two Ounces of Brown Wood, and two Ounces of Madder.
To Finish it,
TAKE again Brown Wood, Madder, Copperas, of each two Ounces.
Silver grey or Silver Colour.
BOIL the Ware with one Ounce of Allom, and one Ounce of Pot-ashes, for every Pound of Ware let the Stuff lye in it one whole Night and then boil it.
To Finish it,
TAKE one Ounce of Sal-Armoniack, one Ounce of Litharge of Silver, one Ounce of bright soot, half a Dram of Christal of Tartar let them dissolve together for one Night, boil them an Hour, then pass the Ware through it.
TAKE one Ounce of Tartar, and half an Ounce of Starch, for every Pound of Ware; boil them together in a little Water, and Skim them. Then add to them a quarter of an Ounce of Cochineal, a quarter of an Ounce of Starch, a quarter of an Ounce of ENGLISH Tin mixt with an Ounce of Aquafortis, and an Ounce of Rainwater. First let the Water with the Tartar and Starch boil, and then throw in the other ingredients and boil them together, then boil the Ware an Hour in the Liquor, and your Work is done.
Another Flesh Colour.
TAKE White Wine Tartar one Ounce, Starch flower and the juice of Limons, of each half an Ounce, Cream of Tartar one quarter of an Ounce, a little Turmerick upon the point of a Knife; boil all these in fair Water, then with half an Ounce of Cochineal and a little while after with an Ounce of Aquafortis, wherein a Dram of Tin hath been dissolved, boil the Stuff an Hour in this Liquor.
Spanish Flesh Colour.
FOR every Pound of Ware take two Ounces of Tartar, a quarter of an Ounce of Cochineal, a quarter of an Ounce of Starch, to which add half an Ounce, when the former hath been a little while in the Suds. Then dissolve two Ounces of filings of Tin in three Ounces of Aquafortis in the Sun Shine, put the Cochineal into the Liquor by degrees, and when it boils, let it be followed by the Aquafortis, and a little while after by the Ware; boil it an Hour, pour off the Water, and add a quarter of an Ounce of Cream of Tartar, or the most subtile Tartar, half an Ounce of Limon juice, half an Ounce of Starch, and half an Ounce of Cochineal, then boil it a quarter of an Hour, according as you see occasion.
HEAT the same preparatory Suds, as for the Crimson Dye, and then stir into it of Galls half an Ounce, of Gum two Ounces, of Copperas an Ounce and a half, all pulverized; boil them till the Gum melts, then put in and Work, the Ware in it half an Hour, and you will have a beautiful and lasting Colour.
To Dye Yellow.
ALLOM your Ware as usual for half an Hour. Then for every Pound, take half a pound of Yellow Dye Weed, a Handful of Woodashes, boil them a quarter of an Hour, then throw your rinced Ware into the Liquor, Work it about till you find it well Dyed, then cool and rince it.
TAKE your Ware after it is Dyed Yellow, as above, hang fresh Water over the fire, and for every Pound of Ware, take one Ounce of Fustel Wood, commonly called GELB SWANE or Yellow shavings, and a sufficient quantity of coarse Pot-ashes, boil the Dye half an Hour, then Work the Stuff in it.
THE Ware being first Dyed Yellow, throw into the Dye half a Pint of Urine, put it in, and Work it about as long as you think convenient.
FOR every Pound of Ware, take two Ounces of Fustel-wood, one Ounce of Pot-ashes, boil them half an Hour, then stir it very well, after which put in your Ware, it being first Dyed Yellow, work it till the Colour pleases you, then rince it out.
PASS your Yellow Dyed Ware through the hot black Dye, and when it is cool rince it, still observing that the lighter the Yellow is the lighter the Fillemott is to be expected, then hang fair Water over the Fire, and put in half an Ounce of Brasil Wood, boil it a quarter of an Hour, and then pass the Ware through it.
To Dye Green.
DYE the Ware first Yellow with Broom or Dye-weed, rince it well out, and while it is yet wet, pass it through the blew Dye, and Work it Light or Dark at pleasure, so that several sorts of Green may be Dyed the same way (the Stuff being always first tinged Yellow) as for example, Grass-green, Sea-green, Lightgreen, Brown-green, Iron-green, or whatever Green you desire.
A Sea Green.
FOR every Pound of Ware, take three Ounces of pulverized Verdigreas, three Pints and a half of Wine Vinegar, half a Pint of Beer Vinegar, stir the Verdigreas in it ; pass a pair of Stockins through the Liquor, then hang them out without rincing, let them Dry and then wet them in the Liquor again, and so dry them as before so oft till they are perfectly cleared from all sort of humidity.
A Brown or Iron Green.
H ANG fair rain Water over the Fire, and for every Pound of Ware put in pulverized Galls, and Gum, Brazil and Copperas, of each an Ounce and a half; an Ounce of Verdigreas; boil them well together, stirring them very well, then boil the Ware in it till it is to your satisfaction, and rince it when cold.
Black Dye, which is often used with good success.
FILL your Kettle with very clear Water, and to Dye ten pieces of Frize or coarse Stuff take two Pound and a half of right Turkish Galls, one Pound and a half of Brown wood, or Walnut Tree; boil them very well together, then put in the Stuffs and let them boil two Hours, and lye a whole Night in the Liquor, take them out and if you have any old Dye suds, that hath before been used, pour it to the Gall Liquor and add two Pound of Copperas, let them thoroughly boil, then put in these Stuffs, boil them two Hours and leave them a whole Night in the Liquor, then rince them out and let them be very carefully and nicely Dyed; if it be in a kiln, 'tis so much the better; rub them with a pumice Stone, and smooth them very well, then pour the Dye out of the Kettle and keep it, and repeat the mentioned Operation in every particular; Iron the Stuff a little with a hot Iron after which take Water, and two Pound and a half of Turkish Galls, one Pound and a half of Brown-wood, and Dye them a third time after the same manner: and they will be black enough, but if you would have the Dye more bright and beautiful, take a Kettle full of fair clear Water, put into it half a Pound of Calcined Vitriol, and one Pound of Tartar, boil the Stuffs in this Liquor an Hour, and rince them out, then put fresh Water into the Kettle, and for every Piece of twelve Ells, put in half a Pound of Brown Wood, and boil the Stuffs half an Hour, or an Hour, and if you would have the black yet finer, and better, then Dye it once in the Following Soot Dye.
The Soot Dye.
GALL the Ware with Alder Bark and Galls for three Hours, and to blacken the Gall suds add lye and soot, boil the Ware in the Liquor two Hours, then add Copperas and leave the Ware in a whole Night, then rince it out.
How to Dye a Peice of Stuff of fifteen Ells, a Lasting brown or Iron green.
TAKE three quarters of a Pound of Allom, half a Pound of Tartar, two Ounces of Calcin'd Vitriol; boil the Stuff in it half an Hour, rince it in clean Water, and when dryed for the blew you may throw away the Allom Suds.
How to blew it.
THE Frieze Fustian, or other Ware being blewed with Woad, light or deep according as you desire your Green to be of a light or deep brown, then it must be rinced again and dryed, to prepare it for the Following Yellow.
TAKE eight Pound of Broom, and keep it down in the Kettle, with a stick or hoop, that it do not Flote on the Top, boil in half an Hour, and when you would use it, add two quarts of sharp Lye, half an Ounce of flower of Brimstone, an Ounce and half of Verdigreas, then Dye your Ware once only, and you will find it of a beautiful brown or Iron Green; you may if you please, Dye your Stuff Green from a Lead Colour, and it will be deeper than the other, and last very well, but when 'tis Dyed with Brown Wood and blewed 'tis lighter, but is not so firm as the other.
How to Dye a Peice of Fustian, Frize, or other goods of twenty five Ells, of a lasting Brown Violet Colour.
TAKE three quarters of a Pound of Allom, half a Pound of Tartar, half an Ounce of Sal-armoniack, boil the Stuff in this Liquor two Hours, rince it in clean Water and dry in order to blew it as follows.
The Blew Dye.
DYE it a deep lasting blew, with Woad or Indigo, rince it clean and dry it.
Then follows the Brown Violet.
TAKE one Pound of Brasil boiled in a great Pot apart, and divide it into four equal parts; with a clean Ladle put the one part into the Kettle before the Stuff is put in, and add besides Salt-peter, and Sal-armoniack pulverized, of each one Dram; then pass the Stuff very well through the Dye, then dry it, then put in another part of the Brasil, adding to it a quarter of an Ounce of Galls pulverized, pass the Stuff through the Dye again, and dry it and so repeat the operation twice more; and after the fourth time, you will find it of a beautiful Violet Colour, but observe that the fourth time you must use a clean sharp Lye in order to brighten the Lustre, adding one Dram of Calcined Allom. This Colour may be produced from Brown-wood and a quarter of a Pound of Brazil, in four or five Operations, and twice adding Galls, but is not so durable as the other; but to render it more lasting Indigo and more Brown wood may be added, and lastly it may be Browned with Brasil, so that indeed it is several ways to be done.
How to Dye the same, and other Stuffs of a lasting Purple Dye.
THAT the Stuff may have the better Lustre when Dyed, it ought, when White, to be very clean and free from all manner of spots or stains.
THE Ware must first be Dyed, to the depth of a Sky colour, with Woad or Indigo, and then dryed.
The Browning or deepening.
TAKE half a Pound of Brasil, boiled and divided into four parts, as before in the Violet brown Dye, and dyed time after time also the same way. To the first part of the Brasil, add one Dram of Salt-peter, and one Dram of Sal-armoniack pulverized. The second time add a quarter of an Ounce of pulverized Galls, and half an Ounce of PARIS-RED, a sort of bastard Sandarac: The third time a quarter of an Ounce of Galls, besides Salt-peter and Allom, of each one Dram, and a quarter of an Ounce of Calcined Tartar: And the fourth time a quarter of an Ounce of Pulverized Galls, a quarter of an Ounce of Turmerick, one quart of sharp Lye; Thus you will find your Colour very beautiful. This Brown may be prepared very lasting, from SHERBAREN; it may also be done very cheap with Brown-wood, but not so lasting.
How to prepare the Indigo Dye, for the Lye, in conjunction with the Provence Blew, and make it lasting for Stuffs, Silks, Woollen and Linnen.
FIRST of all when you undertake this Work, and are informed what sort of blew your Ware must be Dyed. If it must have a deep Dye, it must first be prepared in Tartar and Vitriol, but for a light Dye in Allom and Tartar. Boil three Pound of Brown-wood in a Bag, in a Kettle of Water for half an Hour, then take it out and dry it, and let the Dye cool so much that you can bear your hand in it; then use your Indigo and Ashes (as in the first Direction for Blew) with all the rest of the useful and remedying Drugs from beginning to end as is directed.
Then as follows.
WHEN the Blew Dye hath stood twenty Hours, and the Indigo come to its perfect strength, and begins to be blew; what you design for a deep Dye you ought to Dye first, and the lighter Dye last: when you have worked the Dye half an Hour, then let it rest an hour, and so on as long as you Work it. If the Lye be too weak, you may strengthen it at pleasure.
To mix the Provence Blew with Woad for Silk, Woollen and Linnen Ware, and to improve the blew.
IN the preparation of Woad, you have been informed that it requires three Waters : so if you would use the Provence blew with Woad and Indigo, in the first Water, you ought to put no Brown-wood, then you must consider how the Woad comes from the Lye. For the next Water; boil one Pound of Brown-wood in a Bag, taking care there be no Bran in the Water: In the third Water, take two Pound of Brown-wood. But if you would have the Dye deeper, you ought to take care that the Dye be deeper in the first Operation, as is directed in the other preparation; and if it be deficient, you are instructed how to cure it in the Woad-preparation.
Then follows how to Dye a Peice of fifteen Ells Ash-Colour.
FIRST Dye it Sky Colour with Woad and Indigo, then rince it out clean and dry it, then apply the following black: take four Ounces of beaten Galls, one Dram of burnt Allom, half a Pound of Vitriol, boil the Dye and the Stuff in it half an Hour, then pass it through, rince and dry it; then add to your Suds, three Ounces of Brasil before boiled in a Skillet apart, three quarts of sharp Lye, half an Ounce of Rocksalt or Sal-Gemmae, and you will have a beautiful Ash Colour. You may also prepare this Colour brighter with Galls, but if the Lustre be not good when taken out of the Woad or Indigo Copper to try : Then add four Ounces of Sumach, Six Ounces of Vitriol, three Ounces of Madder, three Ounces of Salt, half an Ounce of Burnt Allom. But the first Ash Colour is the most beautiful and lasting; however 'tis left to your choice, to use which you please.
How to Dye Silk or wool of the Polish Red.
FOR every Pound of Silk take a Pail of Water and warm it, put in four Ounces of Galls Pulverized, and when it begins to boil, put in your Madder, which you must proportion according to the depth or lightness of the Dye: Stir them together and Dye the Silk, a quarter of an Hour, whilst it is boiling; then put in some Potashes and Dye the Silk a quarter of an hour, rince it out and you have the true Polish Red.
Soot Dye or Hair Colour is prepared as followeth.
WHEN the Ware is Allomed and Dyed Yellow, then take the Galls, Brownwood and Madder, and therewith Dye it to an Ash Colour, then add a little Copperas, and you have the Hair Colour.
N.B.-This Dye is proper for Woolens, but not for Linnens.
To Dye Stuff a Lasting Silver Dye.
TINGE it a half light Grey in the Woad, rince it clean and dry it, but observe withal that the whiter the Stuff before it is Dyed, the brighter the Lustre.
To black or deepen it, take an Ounce and half of Galls pulverized, four Ounces and half of Vitriol, half an Ounce of Sal-armoniack, a quarter of an Ounce of Salt-peter, two Ounces of Madder, and prepare them as the Ash Colour above mentioned; and if you would have it incline more to the red, add two Ounces of boiled Brasil, two ounces of sharp Lye, a quarter of an Ounce of Calcined Allom, and a Dram of Calcined Tartar; and it will appear very beautiful to the Eye.
How to Dye the Hamburg Black, supposing the Stuffs to be first blewed with Woad, or Indigo, in a manner that is lasting.
TAKE three quarters of a Pound of Tartar, one Pound of Vitriol, boil the Ware in it two Hours, then rince it clean, and dry it.
Blew it as followeth.
Your Dye be either Woad or Indigo, yet You must give the Stuffs a deep ground, Which will bestow a bright Lustre. For the Second blew, boil your Woad and Brown Wood and blew your Ware to the depth of Indigo, or to a sort of Iron Gray, and after this 'tis easy to Gall and Dye it black; but the Nicety lyes in the blewing. After the blewing, the Stuff must be rinced clean and dryed again. Then follows
TAKE Six Ounces of Galls, two Ounces of Madder, a quarter of an Ounce of Calcined Tartar, and therewith Gall the Stuff one Hour not rinced but dryed, and then Galled a second time, the Suds being a little strengthened, or helped, as follows.
The Second Galling.
To the remaining Suds, add half an Ounce of Galls, one Ounce and a half of Madder, one Ounce of Calcined Vitriol, one Ounce not yet of Gum Arabick. This done, the Stuff being not yet rinced but dryed, must be Blackned in the Gall Liquor as follows:
BOIL the Liquour, then take one Pound of Vitriol first dissolved in spring Water, which must be poured into the Dye, then add to the Alder black half an Ounce of Galls, one Ounce of Madder, one Ounce of white Gum, one Dram of Mastick, and after you have Dyed the Stuff black in this Dye, rince it out clean and dry it, now, as well as after the second Blacking. which must be done as followeth: Take half a Pound of Vitriol, and immediately afterwards, half an Ounce of Galls, one Dram of Mastick, half an Ounce of Gum Tragacanth, and both times, let the Stuff be an Hour a blackening, till it hath got a lasting Dye, and besides all, you may, if you please, add some Brown-wood to give it the better Luster, and preserve it from spoiling.
How to Dye Stuffs the Sumach Dye that it shall be very lasting.
TAKE a great Vessel and put in the Eight following Drugs, viz., Eight Pound of Alder-bark, Eight Pound of Sumach, twelve Pound of Oak-shavings, nine Pound of Vitriol or Copperas, two Pound of wild or Bastard Marjoram, Six Pound of Iron filings, as much Lye as is necessary, Six Pound of Walnutt Tree leaves, half a Pound of Calcined Tartar, two Pound of Salt and four Pound of small shot; Put them all in, when the Water is hot, takeing care the Vessel be full, and daily look't after. The Stuff must first be boiled in the preparatory Suds, composed of three quarters of a Pound of Tartar, and one Pound of Vitriol, for the space of an Hour and half, then rinced and dryed.
Then followeth the Galling.
TAKE one Pound and half of Sumach, four Ounces of Madder, an Ounce and half of Calcined Salt-peter, one Dram of Sal-armoniack, an Ounce and half of Vitriol, half an Ounce of Calcined Tartar: Divide these Drug in two parts, and take two parts of Galls also, put in the Stuffs, take them out, avoid rincing the Ware and let it dry.
Then followeth the blackening.
FILL the Sumach Copper with prepared Dye, twice or thrice, and for every time, add four Ounces of Vitriol, two Ounces of Sumach, one Ounce of Gum Arabick; and the last time superadd, half an Ounce of Gum Tragacanth, and a Dram of Mastick. I have also boiled the Stuff with Brown-wood, adding Six Ounces thereof to the first Suds, as also half an Ounce of Gum Albanum, and one Ounce of Calcined Tartar and Vitriol mixt together, and I found the Stuff of a beautiful black.
The Preparation of the Soot black Dye.
THIS Dye is prepared and worked the same way with the last, only the Ingredients are different. But to either Dye, a good understanding Artist is necessary, The Brown-wood Dye is as followeth. Take Eight Ounces of Brown-wood first boiled, half an Ounce of Gumm Albanum ,one Ounce of Calcined Salt-peter and Vitriol mixt; and you have a good black.
Note that when the Flax hath been soaked in the Lye, boiled and well dryed, then it must be rinced very well in running or River Water, and blewed and wrung out with the Hands, then dryed again. JOHN SCHONACK farther informs us, that he knew a Person that used to prepare his Flax so well, and make it so fine and soft, that it was fit to be used in fine Camericks or Lawnes. The method he took was as follows: He made a very strong Lye, and soaked the Flax in it (how long the informer could not tell) then he took it out and dryed it, and afterwards rinced it in fair or fresh Water, then he blewed and wrung it, and laid it in soak in Lye again; and as before rinced it clean, blewed and wrung it, and after that laid it a third time to soak; in the Lye, rinced it in fresh Water, then dryed and Combed it, after all which it became as fine, soft and white as Lawn. But this is only proposed as an experiment worth the Tryal.
How to Dye Linnen, or Fustian of a Flesh Colour.
FOR every Pound of Ware take two Ounces of Bastard or Wild Saffron, put it in a bag and dissolve it in the quantity of a Pail of Water one Night, throw away the Water, and take another pail of Water, take the Saffron out of the bag, and rub it very well betwixt your Hands wring it clean of the Water, filter the Liquor that none of the Saffron be lost, and then throw it away; repeat this operation as oft as the saffron leaves any Yellow Tincture in the Water, and when it is quite deprived of its Yellowness, then wring it out and dry it with your Hands: After which take a little Lye made of Beech-ashes, heat it and put in your thus prepared Saffron, letting it soak five or six Hours, then wring it out, and that none may remain, filter the Lye through a hair Sieve; throw away the Saffron and add to the Lye an equal quantity of Beer Vinegar, stir it about very well, then put in your Pound of Ware, leave it in the Liquor three or four Hours, and then rince it clean out; and you will find it of a very good Crimson Flesh Colour: But observe the Ware must be frequently stirred about, to prevent its being flaked and unequally Dyed.
The manner of making a Fatt, and preparing hot Suds to Dye Linnen and Woolen blew.
FIRST make a Fatt big enough to contain sixteen Pails of Water, wide at the top, and narrow at the bottom; season it with hot Water for twenty four Hours, and then wash it Out with cold Water, then cut a hole of a quadrilateral form about twenty one inches high, and fourteen broad; then prepare a Copper Plate of same thickness with the Wood of the Fatt ; which nail upon the hole placing the Nails about two Fingers breadth from one another, taking care also that they be small, with broad heads, to prevent any leakage; then clap an Iron Hoop at the Top, and another at the bottom of the Copper. The hole must be made about a Hand breadth from the bottom of the Fatt, This done, Plaister or Brick it about, either leaving or making a hole in the Plaister or Brickwork, wider at the outmost end (and a little narrower at that which comes to the Copper) then the Copper it self; its shape being like an Oven's mouth, that the Wood be not injured when the fire to heat the Fatt of Suds, is put into this vacancy.
Then for every Pound of Indigo in order to blew Linnen or Woollen, Take sixteen Pails of Water, into which put twelve good Hand fuls of coarse Wheaten bran, Half or three quarters of a Pound of Madder, and three Pound of Pot ashes; pour them all into a Copper to make Suds: and when the Liquor boils so as to begin to swell and bubble up, throw in half a Pail full of cold Water, and take the fire from under the Copper: then take a Handful or two of good Lime, prepared as the Tanners use it, and Plaister the inside of the empty Fat with it, then pour all the Ingredients out of the Kettle into it, and cover it very close. The Day before you do this, you must take care to dissolve your Indigo, in two or three quarts of Water in a clean Iron or Brass Vessel, adding a Hand ful of Wheaten bran, a Ladle full of Madder and one Ounce of Pot ashes; leaving it a whole night by a coal fire, but Not suffering it to boil, or grow warmer than you can bear your hand in it, but grinding it with a Pestle till it becomes as soft as Pap, and is quite cleared of all roughness or hardness, upon which it is fit to be put into the Fatt to the other Ingredients. This done, stir it about three or four times with a Stick, then cover it close and let it settle for twelve hours, after which, take off the cover and put in a quarter of an Ounce of Quick silver, stir it about and cover it as before, letting it settle for six Hours ; then throw in a good Ladle ful of Lime dust or Powder, or of the same as the Fat was before Plaistered withal, stir it about and cover it close, letting it stand three Hours longer; then put in an Ounce of Pot ashes, stir it well about again, and clap a Coal fire in the hole before the Copper Plate, in order to keep it warm, letting it stand yet three Hours longer after which, nothing is to be added, only stir it as before, and in an Hour or two after, you may Dye with it as follows. Hang the ten pieces of Ware in it keeping the Bran and flower, &c. from it with your Hand, to prevent its touching the Linnen as much as possible; wring the ten Pieces out, one against another, then try by feeling with your finger whether the Dye be harsh or soft and smooth, if it feels too rough throw in an Ounce of Pot ashes and if it be too smooth add a Ladle full of Lime. When you have worked the Stuffs in it two Hours, put in ten fresh Pieces which Work as the former, and when they are dry, wring them a second or third time in the Dye, till they become of a Colour as deep as you desire them.
Work your Dye in this manner, till you have dyed sixty Pieces, after which, if you would dye any Woollen Ware, Stockings, Worsted or Yarn : Take two or three Pails fuls of Water, into which put three Hand fulls of Wheaten Bran, two Ounces of Madder, and half a Pound of Pot ashes, hang it over the fire and boil it to Suds, as before; then pour it into the Fatt, and after stirring it well about, let it settle for six Hours, after which stir it again, then let it stand to settle three Houres; try with your finger whether it is harsh or smooth, if too harsh, add an Ounce of Pot ashes; if too smooth, put in a Ladle ful of Lime; stirring it about again. When you design to Dye the Woollen Ware alone without Linnen, prepare a Liquor of a sufficient quantity of hot Water, one Hand ful of Madder, and one or two Hand fulls of Wheaten Bran, boil them together, and wet your Woolen or Silken Manufactures therein, and after letting them drop as long as they will, put them into the abovementioned Dye Fatt, keeping them there till they are become of as deep a Colour as you would have them. If you would Dye your Goods Green, you must first Dye them Yellow with Broom or Dyers weed, otherwise called Yellow Weed; after which put them into the abovementioned Blew Fatt; but withal, observe that they ought not to be wetted in the Madder Water, as the Blew; but take them out of the Fat as soon as they are sufficiently Dyed, always taking care that you do not Dye above half a dozen pair of Stockens, or a proportionate quantity of other Woollen Ware, before you put in your Linnen which so soon as you have put in the Fat, ought to be covered close for half an Hour, then wring the Goods well about, let it settle half an Hour, wring it about again and draw it out. Stir your Dye again very well, adding Lime or Pot ashes, according as it wants either after which, let it settle for two Hours, then put in other Ware to Dye, and work it as before, stirring it every two Hours: If you find the Liquor doth not Dye or work well, let it rest a Day and Night, keeping the Fire to it all the while, and add one Ounce of Foenugreek pulverized, and stir it well about, and the Dye will come to itself again. If you have so many things to Dye, that you have occasion to augment the quantity of Indigo to two or three Pound, yet you need not make your Madder, Pot ash and Bran Liquor stronger than what is above prescribed to one Pound.
To Dye Linnen Green.
LAY it a whole Night in strong Allom Water, dry it well, then take Broom or Dyers Weed, boil it the space of an Hour, after which, take it out and put into the Suds half or a whole unce of Verdigrease, according you have more or less of Ware to Dye; stir it very well about with a Stick, then work the Linnen in it, once, twice or thrice, as Occasion requires; adding the second and third time a quantity of Pot ashes equal to a Hens Egg, then work your Linnen the third time, and you will find it of a Yellow Colour; which dry in the Air, and afterwards throw it into the Blew Fat above mentioned and that will produce your desired green.
How to Dye Woollen, Silk, Worsted or Yarn of a Flesh Colour.
PREPARE two Pails full of sharp Lye, from a Handful of Beech Ashes twice boiled; into one of the Pails, throw one Pound of Potashes, and heat the Lye in a brass Kettle, and when the Pot ashes are dissolved, stir the Liquor very well; stir up the Fire, and then put in one Pound of Flocks or Shreds of Madder Red dyed Cloath, hang it over the Fire, let it boil sometime, and stir it about with a Wooden Instrument; then fill it up with the remaining Lye made boiling hot, always taking care to keep it boiling and stirring, and a full hour after fill it up again with Lye, then scum it clear, and as it boils away for three hours, fill it up with stale Urine: all which being carefully done, pass a thread of Yarn through it, and Draw it through your Finger; to examine whether there is any Hair hangs to it, and if it doth, put in one quarter Ounce of Pulverized Turmerick, stir it about very well, and try with the Yarn Thread again, whether it takes as good a red as you desire. If you would Dye your Ware of a beautiful orange Colour, then pour half your Dye into another Fat, put into it your Ware, Dyed before yellow with Broom or Dyers Yellow Weed; and in the remaining part of the Dye, you may put your White Goods (which by the way must not be Allomed) covering it very close, that no Steem evaporate till it be cold: Then throw about two Pails full of Spring Water into a Tub, and rince both your Colours very well therein, dry and Press them, and then rince them again in Spring Water. If you would have a very Beautiful Flesh Colour, hand your Kettle (which must be of Brass) again over the Fire, boil the Dye to Suds, and put in your Ware, leaving it there till it be cold, then rince it in the same Water, which you have before, but remember to take especial Care, that you do not mix the Orange and Flesh Colours together.
If you would Produce a Lighter Orange Colour.
HANG the Dye again over the Fire, put in your Yellow Dyed Ware, and let it continue in till it becomes cold, then rince it as the Flesh Colour before. If you would produce a lighter Flesh Colour, then boil the Dye again to Suds, and throw in your White Ware as before, and rince it out; and so if you would Dye a Light Gold Colour, &c. do it as before, and Take the Water, wherein you have rinced Your former Ware, and boil or heat it, then put in the quantity of a Pigeons Egg of Allom, after which put in your Ware, that is either Dyed Blew or Yellow, letting it continue therein till it be cold, and then rince it out.
If you have other Colours to Dye, you may follow the same Rule with discretion.
Crimson Dye for an Ounce of Yarn or Worsted.
TAKE of Roch Allom, Pulverized, one Ounce, of White Wine Tartar Pulverized, two Ounces, of Yellow Oaker Pulverized, four Ounces, of Litharge of Silver, two Ounces, and of Aquafortis two Ounces and half; to all which add two Pails full of Water, and boil them together for an Hour and a quarter, then Wash them out with Fresh Water, and Scour the Kettle with Sand, then put them in again, and add to them two Ounces of White Wine Tartar, two Pails full of Water, two Ounces of White Arsenick, dissolved in a little Water, and two Ounces of Cochineal; first boil them together, then add one Ounce of Aquafortis, and so let them boil till the Dye comes to its proper Colour.
To Dye Linnen Thread Blew.
FOR every six Pound of Thread, take half an Ounce of Allom, five Ounces of Tartar, two quarts of sharp Lye, and as soon as it boils, put in your Thread and let it soak therein four Hours then rince or pass it through fresh Water, and afterwards Dye it Blew with a Pound of boiled Brown wood, three quarters of an Ounce of Verdigrease pulverized, one Quart of sharp Lye, two Ox or Cowes Galls, half an Ounce of Calcined Tartar, half an Ounce of Calcined White Vitriol; put in the Thread at twice, so that you may dye it light or deep at pleasure; and then the Thread having first lain two Hours in the Woad Lye, must be rinced out clean. If it be put into this Dye, when it is cold, it becomes much brighter and blewer than when it is boiling hot; but the most lasting Dye for Thread is performed with Woad; But if you would Dye it in the Indigo Copper, you ought to use the same preparation Suds, as in this Dye, and the Colour will be durable; and lastly, the Thread Dyed with Indigo, ought to be rinced through warm Water, in order to give it the better Lustre.
To Dye Thread a lasting Green.
TAKE three quarters of a Pound of Allom, half a Pound of Tartar, two Quarts of sharp Lye, boil them together for an Hour, and soak your thread therein three Hours, keeping it hot all the while. Then Dye it Yellow, with eight Pound of BROOM, one Pound of *Corn Marigold Flowers, half a Pound of Crab tree bark, that looks Yellow and ripe; which put into the Kettle, and superadd two Quarts of sharp Lye, boil them Half an Hour, then Dye the Thread in the Liquor, as deep a yellow as possible, but if you can get any SPANIsH Yellow, an addition of three quarters of a Pound of it, will heighten the Dye, and render it more lasting; for 'tis to be considered that all Yellows designed to be Dyed Green, must be as deep as possible.
After which turn it Green with the Blew Dye, as in the last foregoing Receipt, so that you may turn it to a light or dark Green at pleasure. There are four Operations in Dying a good Green, for first you may Blew the Thread with Woad, or else with Indigo, being first thrown into the Allom Suds, and afterwards in the Yellow, and you will have a lasting Green. So that Green is to be Dyed several ways.
* in Latin Chrysanthem and otherwise called in English Golden Flowers or wild Marigold.
How to Dye Thread another sort of Green.
FILL your Kettle with sharp Lye, then throw in a bundle of Broom, let them boil very well, then decant the Liquor into a Fatt, and for every Pound and half of Thread, take half an Ounce of Verdigrease, and half an Ounce of Allom, put them in a Quart of Lye, wherein Brown Brasil wood hath been boiled, stir them together, and pour them into the Broom Water, then lay the Thread one Night in soak in this mixt Liquor, and you will find it well Dyed.
How to Dye Green Thread Black.
MAKE a Proper quantity of sharp Lye; into which put three quarters of a Pound of Brown Brasil wood, boil them together, then pour the Liquor into a Fatt, and put into it one Ounce of Gum Arabick, one Ounce of Allom, one Ounce of Verdigrease, then put in the Green Thread, and leave it in it the space of one whole Night, and it will become black.
How to Dye a Silver Dye.
TO Dye a pair of Stockens, take Six Galls, a like weight of Gum Arabick, as also the same weight of Allom, with a small quantity of Brown Brasilwood. Boil them in Rain Water, then cool the Stockens out of the Liquor three times.
To Dye Thread of a Lasting Violet Colour.
TAKE half a Pound of Tartar, half a pound of Allom, two Ounces of Brasil wood, half an Ounce of Salt peter, boil them together, then lay the thread four Hours in the Liquor, after which rince it out and dry it. And then Brown it with one Pound of Brown wood, half a Pound of Brasil boiled in a large Vessel which Dye is thus to be used: Divide it into four equal Parts, still Observing, that each part must always be used Warm, and the Thread dryed after each Operation, and when you use the first Part, add to it half an Ounce of Sumach, one Dram of Salt peter; the second time a quarter of an Ounce of Calcined Tartar, and one Dram of Pulverized Verdigrease; the third time a quarter of an Ounce of Sumach, and one Dram of Salt peter; and the last time if the Thread remains a little Reddish, pour in a Quart of hot sharp Lye, and you will find it of a Beautiful Violet Brown: But if the Thread be boiled in allom and Blewed with Woad, and then browned with Brasil, you will have a more Beautiful and lasting Colour.
To Dye Thread, a Purple Colour.
FIRST Allom it with three Pound of Allom, half a Pound of Tartar, and two Ounces of Brasil, dry it, draw it through the Woad or indigo Dye, then rince it clean and dry it again; then to brown or deepen it, take three quarters of a Pound of Brasil, first boiled; the Liquor whereof divide into three Parts, to be used at three times. To the first add half an Ounce of *PARIS RED, one Dram of Mastick, a quarter of an Ounce of Calcined Tartar, always taking care to dry the Thread, after you have used any one of the Parts of the Liquor; the second time, add half an ounce of Turmerick, two Drams of Cinnabar, and half an Ounce of Gum Arabick; the third time, when the Thread becomes Reddish, add a quart of sharp Lye, and by this means you will have your Thread Dyed of a lasting Colour.
* A sort of bastard Sandarac.
To Dye Thread Yellow.
TAKE Eight Pound of Broom, one Pound of SPANISH* Yellow, one Pound of Crabtree rind, and one Pound of Corn Marigolds; put them into a Kettle with three Quarts of sharp Lye, and boil them together, and work your Thread in the Liquor three times Successively, not suffering it to dry between whiles, and you will have a beautiful and lasting Colour.
IN the first Part of this Book of Dying, we have mentioned a sort of Chermes Berries, to be found in the territories of the MARGRAVE Of BRANDENBURG: Which Assertion was grounded upon a certain Information, that the Author of the Observations had received about thirty Years past, importing that an Herb Woman at Anspach, commonly called the Flower Woman, used Yearly to gather a Quantity of Chermes Berries, and the Author is of Opinion that these Berries are to be found upon several plants, in divers places of GERMANY, as well as in POLAND; tho' they are not yet sufficiently known, nor can I any longer see any Reason to doubt, that those Berries gathered in the MARGRAVATE of BRANDENBURG, were the same which we intend to enlarge upon, which I hope may Contribute at least a mite to the Publick Good.
To go the shortest way to Work; I am of Opinion that these Berries are nothing else, but those which the People, in ROMAN Catholick Countries, go out to gather on St. John's Day, and which they find upon a small sort of Plant or Grass (very well known to them) and called St. John's Blood, which they collect for a superstitious end. This I take the Liberty to offer to the Inquisitive Naturalist to improve; tho' not without the Authority of several Learned Men, to back my Assertion; from whence we may Reasonably infer, that an advantageous Use may be made of them. CAMERARIUS, in his Epitomy of MATPHIOLUS, mentions them, as doth also CASP BAUHINUS in his Notes upon the same Author, and in his PINAX, but DR. GEORGE SEGRE, and DR. MARTIN BERNARD A BERNITZ, in the first and third year of the ACTA, &c., informs us more largely on this subject, wherefore I have thought fit to offer what they say.
And first of all, there is nothing more remarkable, than that these little Berries if gathered when they come to be soft, tho' the Sunshine be so far from Hot, that it scarce affords a Warmth, and laid in the Air a Day or two, you find perfect Worms growing in them. Of the remaining tincture, our first Author takes no Notice, but BERNITZ Treats more at large on this Subject, of which take the following extract.
POLYGONUM, in ENGLISH Knot grass, is very well known to be of two sorts, viz. large and small, and there are different sorts of each, tho' they are not commonly applied to any particular Use. CAMERARIUS mentions one sort of it, under the Name of POLYGONUM POLONICUM COCCIFERUM, i.e., the Chermes Berry Knot Grass; and is followed by BAUHINUS, in the Description of the same Plant. These Berries are neither the Seed, nor Natural production of the Plant, but rather a sort of accidental Appendage to the Root, for all Plants of the very same Identical Species do not produce them, they being found, hanging to some of the Roots; and the Production of these Berries, seems indeed to depend upon the Soil, the time of the Year, and the benignity of the Season; because for want of these, 'tis Observable, that every Year doth not yield them. They are of a Blood or deep Red Colour, in size not unlike Hemp seed, but perfectly Globular; they contain a Blood Coloured juice, and a Worm of the same Colour; which sort of Worms HERMOLAUS upon DIOSCORIDES, Affirms Tinctured Silks of an Unparallel'd Beautiful Red, Scarlate or Purple; and that their Tinctural Virtue, was at first accidentally discovered, by Observing that those Hens which Eat of them, always voided very high Coloured excrements. 'Tis worth inserting what our Learned Author saith, of the word CARMASIN, i.e., Crimson; that it seems a corruption of CARBASIN, which is likewise esteemed the principal Silk Dye; but what seems to invalidate this derivation, is, that the Name of Chermes, rather appears to be given to these Berries by the ARABIANS, than the GREEKS, since he informs us, that in the PHOENICIAN Tongue, the Worm was called Chermes. It is not reasonable to imagine, that the ARABIANS were ignorant of the Nature of the Berries, when they gave them the durable Name of Chermes, by which they are at present called; for that the same thing is at present called by the same name, or to speak more clearly, that it is become its most lasting and universal Name, is notoriously evident.
The Common People in GERMANY call them ST. JOHN'S Blood, because they appear at the Summer Solstice, which always happens not long before or after ST. JOHN'S Day. The name of POLISH Purple Berries, was undoubtedly occasion'd from their being found in greater plenty in that Country than in others, and their peculiar advantageous Use of them in Dying, to which end they seem first, and more particularly to be used, by the Eastern Countries, adjacent to POLAND.
BERNITZ particularly observeth, That they are found in greatest abundance about WARSAW, and more especially in the very Field, where the Coronation of their King is commonly Celebrated; that they grow in sandy Ground, and in great plenty in UKRANIA, and peculiarly in the largest and most sandy Deserts; that the Crown General KONITZ POLTZKY, and others of the POLISH Nobility, whose Seignories lay in such lands, used to sell them to the JEWS; who always gathered them at the proper Season, and made their Market of them. These Berries are generally gathered by poor People, appointed thereto in the following manner. They hold up the little plant with the one Hand, and with the other, by the assistance of a Hollow Trowel, made for that purpose, they pull up the root whole, and undamaged, from which they first separate the sandy Earth, and then gather the Berries; and so soon as this is done, clap the root into the Ground again immediately, which is certainly a very prudent and advantagious way, for no doubt but it remains prolifick, or at least sheds its seeds, and produceth another in the place. When the Worms in these Berries come to maturity, they eat their way through, and leave their Berries, in effect, nothing but clear empty Husks. The People appointed for this Work, select the largest sort of these Worms as they slowly march out of their Husks, and very carefully dry them, and leisurely make them into balls, which is much better than the lesser sort, and affords twice as much colour and is therefore sold considerably dearer. Our Author further Affirms; That this Drug is chiefly sold to the ARMENIAN and TURKISH Merchants, those Nations Dying their Woollen and Silken Manufactures therewith, as also their Leather, but especially that sort called SAPHIAN : With it they also Dye their Hair Work, and Flockt Tapistries, of a Beautiful Red, as they do likewise their Horse tails. This Author also observes, That the HOLLANDERS buy great quantities of this commodity, at a great rate, at DANTZICK, which is a considerable Market for it; and withal, that the DUTCH are wont to mix an equal quantity of with their Cochineal before they use it, which not only heightens the Dye, and renders it more agreeable; but makes it take better upon the Ware; Cochineal of itself being too greasy. When the Berries are gathered, they moisten them with Vinegar, or very fresh cold Well Water, in order to kill the Worms; when that is done, they immediately dry them, either in a moderate Stove, or Oven, or in a hot Sun, taking care withal, that they be not too dry, which those employed in this Work are very skilful to discern.
Our Author also tells us, not only that the RUSSIAN Painters prepared a very Beautiful Red or Purple Colour with this Ingredient, and Vinegar or Limon juice, but that the beautiful Red Lake is prepared from it. And what is most remarkable, he asserts for a certainty that the Colour so much at present in esteem, and which is sold at so dear a rate, called CARMINE, is prepared by the JEWS and ARMENIANS in PERSIA, from this very Drug, which they import there from Foreign Countries; that a great part of the Preparation, agrees with the Magistery of Chermes Berries described by ZWELFER: He also affirms, that as well the so well known SPANISH Wool, as the Cosmetick which comes from TURKY, called PEZZETTE DI LEVANTE, is a mixture of this ingredient and Limon juice, and particularly of this Red juice prepared from the dryed Berries. What he saith concerning the Medicinal Virtue of these Berries, that it is the same with the other, seems reasonable enough; but what he talks of the diversity consisting more in the diversity of the signature and Colour and than the Nature, I shall at present omit. 'Tis not to be doubted that as this plant grows more peculiarly in dry sandy Deserts, and unprofitable lands, so we may hope for a better improvement of it than hath hitherto been; and that it may one Day be set Foot, as well as several other necessary things, in order to help our poor Country; or at least prevent the exportation of so much Money for Foreign Commodities, which in time may be kept at home, an Instance of which we have, in the improving Osiers and Woods, that was at first derided, and indeed so it will be as long as any body is left to speak against a good design.
Written for the Information of the Lovers of the Noble ART OF DYING.
A Direction, How to judge aright of Pot and Weed Ashes.
FIRST of all the Dryest and Heaviest are the best; and that the reader may be thoroughly enabled to distinguish aright on this subject, wherein consists the dryness and weight of the Ashes, we shall distinctly explain, 1. the Dryness. 2. the Weight. 3. the Moistness. 4. the Aired. 5. the Drowned, and 6. the twice dryed Ashes.
As for the weight we must particularly observe what sort of Tubs or Fatts they are in, from Knobs, which the larger they are the better the Ashes. Thus much for the Hardness. As for the soft Ashes we ought chiefly in our choice to take care of the dryness, weight and thickness of the Barrels, that they be fast Packed and Stick together in Knobs, as we shall shew more at large, when we come to talk of the Soap-boilers Ashes.
Of the Colour of the best Ashes.
THE Colour of the best Ashes is always a fine blew or Sky Colour. The manner of examining the Colour is as follows, viz., by throwing a piece of very fine white Cloth or Crape over the Ashes, and if the Ashes appear of a Beautiful blew through the thin Cloth, and the whiteness of the Cloth plainly appears as spread over the Ashes, 'tis a Satisfactory proof that you have the best and finest Ashes. This sort is used in the Linnen Manufacture in BRABAND and by the Thread Bleachers, and is generally the scarlet sort, and bears the highest price, which indeed, I am apt to think, it would always do if it came in as great plenty as the other, because of its beautiful Colour, and that it is endowed with all the virtues of the other sorts, and besides is not only fit to give a Lustre to Linnen and other Manufactures, but may also be used advantagiously to all other uses.
Of the Bleachers Ashes of Holland and other Watry Lands.
THE distinction betwixt these and the former Ashes, is more customary than profitable; The DUTCH Bleachers buying one instead of the other, and preferring the latter to the former: but tho' the latter sometimes are in thinner Barrels, and more glutinous than the former, yet in weight and strength, they can by no means be compared with them.
Of Scouring Ashes.
THERE are several sorts of these slight Ashes, but none of them are so much like the best sort, in any thing as Colour, which is a Grey, deep Blew, and if they were alike in Virtue, Weight, Barrels and Packing, yet there would remain this difference, that this sort alone is Grey, and of a deep Blew, and as the best Sky Colour'd Ashes are covered with a sort of Whitish Colour, so these deep Blew Ashes, on the outside, appear of a sort of agreeable Grey Colour; but if you find, the great Clots on breaking are chiefly Blew, assure your self, that they are very good for the sort. These Ashes cannot be used in Whitening, because as they are very foul, they consequently produce a Lye as foul, wherefore, they are generally made use of in Scouring; as they might be very properly and advantagiously in Soap boiling, if the price were not higher than the Ashes they generally use, which are called Kettle Goods.
Of Soap boilers Ashes, or Kettle Goods, as they are sometimes called.
WHICH require a great deal of skill, in the choice of them, because there are several sorts of them, very different in goodness from each other; so that our whole Book would not be large enough, to Treat this Subject perfectly, and particularly. Good hard Soap Ashes, are distinguished as the other, by the Height and Width of the Barrels, by their Weight, Packing, and Hardness to be discovered between the Pipestaves and at each end, the weight and largeness of the Clotts, and their sticking together after they are pounded with Staves, or as Iron Mineral when they are beaten together and packed very hard to the bottom of the Barrel; always considering that by how much the larger the peices or clotts are, they are by so much the better for the Soapboiler. In short they differ from the other two sorts in the price, being the cheapest sort of the three, by reason that the Beautiful Coloured Ashes, endewed with all the good qualities abovernentioned, and used in Bleaching, are also proper for Scouring and Soap boiling, as the second is proper for the two uses of Scouring and Soap boiling, whereas the last is fit to be used in Soap boiling only; so that as the first is fit for all the three mentioned uses, the second for two of them, and the third but for one, 'tis but reasonable that they should be dearer in Proportion, if equal Quantities were with equal ease to be had of each sort. There is no great difference in the strength of the three sorts, tho' there be in the Colour. As the good Scouring Ashes are as before said of a deep Blew, so this last sort being broken to Pieces by an Ash Iron, if it appears mostly Grey tho' not without some Mixture of Blew, and the Pieces as hard and pointed as so many small Pieces of broken Glass, you may conclude them to be very good Soap Ashes, and tho' not proper to Scour, yet they are often found as strong, large and good, nay sometimes larger than the second sort.
Of New Ashes.
WHICH are a sort of Ashes, that require so nice a judgement in the choice of them, that the Oldest and most experienced Merchant is often at a loss ; for they come frequently from the East Country, out of the Woods before they have had their proper maturating time, and are almost like unslaked Lime, and of a Mealy sort of substance, so that at best 'tis hard to determine concerning their Nature. However in order to form as good a Judgement as is possible, 'tis in the first Place Necessary, that we have an especial regard to their Weightiness ; to which purpose poise a Hand ful of them in your Hand, and if you find them weighty, 'tis a very good Sign. Secondly fill a Barrel with them and afterwards pour then out of the Barrel Perpendicularly, and if they fall very swiftly t the Ground, 'tis no bad sign. Thirdly, As 'tis also a very good one, when they are very clean and White as Hail. Fourthly, it is another good Sign, when the Ashes run or cling together, and begin to be full of Grains or Kernels, at each end of the Barrel. Firstly, If when you try them, by sticking a Knife into these Mealy Ashes, you find some Clots of them, (the larger and harder the better) of as hard a Substance as Sea Cole But if you have time enough to spare, to search more Narrowly into the Goodness of these soft Ashes, select out of a Barrel of this sort of Goods, the largest Clot or Piece, that you can find, which you may observe to be rather like Stone, than a Clod of Ashes, and is what often deceives the unwary and unexperienced Soap boiler, and causes him to complain of his Ashes, as if he were Cheated. But for farther information lay this Clot in the Air a few Dayes, and it will separate and become a Mealy sort of Ashes, like the rest from whence you took it; then take it in, Work and pack it as you intend it shall remain, in the same manner as hard and soft Ashes used to be Packed, and by degrees it will become soft, then Part of it will grow hard, and some will be found of a middling sort betwixt both, and a third soft as Meal; of which last sort, take one Pound and half, moisten it and let it stand several Hours, if it becomes as if it were hard Baken together, 'tis good, and the harder the better: But if on the Contrary it grows softer, and is streaked or mixed with a Yellow reddish Colour, and you find it doth not Cement or grow together into hard Clots or Lumps, but Still remains of a Mealy Substance, you may conclude that 'tis of the very worst sort of all, that is not New, but hath long been Burnt, and is worth very little or at most but about half the Price of the other sort.
What follows is worth your Observation and Care.
THE New Ashes require a very diligent care in examining them, because we may therein easily be mistaken by judging them Newer or Staler then they really are; to prevent which as much as is possible, their Age may partly be known by the Marks of the Woods, from whence they come yearly; by the Colour of the Ashes, and by observing whether the Heads and Bottoms of the Barrels be covered on the inside with Ashes, or rather with the corruption or putrefaction thereof, which always sticks to the Bottoms, sides, and joints of the barrels, if the Ashes are old. The age of the staves whereof the Barrels are made, and the Hoops, may afford also some light : But the best way is to search through the whole Barrel, and if you find them soft in the middle, accompanied with the abovementioned hard undigested Lumps or Clots, then you may certainly conclude, that the Ashes are New. The New Ashes, are often sprinkled with Water, and by the assistance of moistening the top of the Barrel is heated, which sprinkling together with the help of the Air, (which contributes very much) kills the uppermost Ashes if they are even Packed, tho' the innermost remain very good New Ashes; and this Imprudent carelesness often prevents the Buyer with an Advantagious bargain, the Ashes not looking so Sightly as is hinted above. But enough on our first head, till we come to speak in General concerning the diminishing of the Clots. In the meantime you ought to remember carefully that when New Ashes comes in, you may make Lye cheapest, as Experience hath always shown; for the soft Ashes that are clotted will yield more Lye, than the hard, for which reason the soft is cheap and best Husbandry, and the Hard dear.
The hard sort of Ashes is not so apt to decay and loose its strength with the length of time as the soft, which decayes apace, wherefore 'tis always sold cheaper, and the newer it is to be sure the stronger it is, and in the boiling emits its Saline Virtue very swiftly; but on the contrary the hard Ashes, tho' New, do not loose so much of their strength by keeping a long time as the other, tho' they decay more in two or three Years, than in one. But the fine Sky Colour'd Ashes before mentioned, in dry and fine weather, being kept a Year or a Year and half, often prove as good, and the Colour as bright, as at first, nay sometimes they are better for Bleaching and Thread dressing and such like sorts of uses. But as to the hard and soft sort of Soap Ashes, which we chiefly designed to treat of here, the demand for them depends very much on the dearness or cheapness of Hemp or Rape Oyl, and the dearness or abundant plenty of Pot ashes, as we shall more largely hereafter make appear.
Of Wett Ashes.
THE Wetness of Ashes is owing to the Misfortune of being Transported in Leaky Boats upon the Rivers, near whence they come. The wett they Catch by the Barrels their being thrown too hard to the ground, or too roughly Handled, which consequently makes them Leaky; for when the Water comes to your Ashes, the wetting damages them very much, which may also happen from the Ill hooping of the Casks, the distance of the staves, or hardness of the Clods, which may make way for the entrance of Water, which imbibes the best lixivial Salt and leaves the Ashes very feeble, especially if they continue long in the Water; and 'tis Observable that the harder the Ashes are, the more damage they always receive from the wett. These wett Ashes keep their Colour very well a good while, especially if they are kept in moist Places, and also the Barrels close shut. But as soon as they are exposed to the Air, or the Sun doth but Shine upon them, the Colour Dyes, and from Blew turns Pale, like Bricklayers Mortar. But to try the Goodness of them, after taking off the Head of the Barrel, dig up some of the Ashes pretty deep, and tast them, keeping them upon your lounge, as long as you find them contain any sharp biting Quality, and if you find that lasts for a Considerable time, then the Ashes are good; but if it quickly vanishes, they are not worth much.
In the same manner you may try the Clots of the remainder either in the middle or bottom, by holding them to your Tongue, to tast, by which you may judge of it as is before directed; And if you can split the bottom of the Barrel in two Pieces, and where the Wood is split, examine carefully, if the Lye of the Ashes have Corroded deep into the Wood, and Whether the Colour of the Plank be Brown red, if you find it so, and that the Ashes have penetrated deep into it, 'tis a very good sign and it hath a good deal of Potash in it, but if you find it contrary you may be sure 'tis not good. This sort of drowned Ashes may also be known by other Marks, for when the Barrels are Sunk to the Bottom, the way of Fishing them up is always with Leavers or Poles with sharp Iron points, made on Purpose for that use, and often before they can hit aright, to bring them up, it happens that they Strike them several times into the Barrels between the Staves &c., Which gives a fair Opportunity, of Examining the Goodness of the Ashes by the above mentioned and other ways of Tryal; but if it have lost its biting quality, 'tis no Value.
There are also other accidents, which damage and moisten Ashes, viz., The Watryness of the Wood where they are burnt ; occasioned either by much Rain, Hail, Snow; or in the Transportation from the places where they are burnt. Whether the Ashes at the bottom of the Barrel be damaged, may easily be discerned by the Water that stands about it, which will be foul if it be so, and so far as the Tub stands under may easily be discerned by the moisture of the Pipestaves and Bottom, for the uppermost part where the Water hath not come you will find dry: 'Tis a certain rule also that those ashes, which have been wetted or drowned in Running Waters, are by no means so strong as those which have been wetted in Ships, or Boats, the reason whereof is plainly that flowing Waters wash away the strength of the Ashes, whereas the strength of the dissolved ashes remains yet amongst the other. And farther: when the Ashes are Fished out of the Water, and the Fatts sett upon one another, so that the Lye drops off them upon the Earth, you will find the under most the wettest and brown on the outside, as long as they are kept from Air Wind and Sun, but if they are exposed those Barrels which have been wetted become outwardly White mixt with a reddish and Pale Colour. Also Also in some Woods where the good dry Ashes become like the last mentioned, by being prepared upon their foul Earth, tho' these are really the best sort of all, and much better than the forementioned wett Ashes. This sort of Ashes frequently remains a year or longer in the Woods, for want of Frosty Weather, good roads or Snow, without which they cannot be brought to the Shipping places; and in the Spring and Harvest they often want water, and their Rivulets become Innavigable, in the Place where they are made, so that they are forced to let their Ashes lye a whole Year in the open Air, exposed to the Injuries of Snow, Rain and Wind, and consequently 'tis not to be wondered, that there happens some Damaged wet Ashes amongst them. These if the Earth be good are a thoroughly Profitable sort of Bracks or Ashes, and appear of several sorts, some hard some soft &c. Each according to its kind and the Nature of the Earth, which is often better than some of the forementioned : And when these are brought together, they are not much esteemed, and therefore are sold at low Rates, tho' they almost always prove better, than was expected.
Of Damaged or Wet soft ashes.
ALL soft and weak Ashes, if they come to be wet, have this advantage over the wet hard Ashes, that they are not so soon wet through, and that when washed through with Water, they do not so quickly loose all their strength as the hard; for being of a Mealy Nature, their strength is not so soon rinced away as the harder sort, which when it hath Lain long in the Water, very often is utterly deprived of all its Vitrue, as we have before hinted, and may easily be tryed.
Damaged or Wet Ashes, Wetted in Fresh or in Salt Water.
'TIS Undeniably certain that all wetted Ashes (supposing them alike in Goodness) that have been damaged by fresh Water, are much better than those which are injured by salt Water; Because the salt Water is very injurious to, and unfit for Lye, and those so Damaged are utterly unfit for Soap making; the truth of plainly appears by Experience, for after great Charge and Trouble, they always make bad Soap, to the Great loss of Soap boilers, wherefore these Ashes are as much as is possible to be always avoided.
Of the several Sorts of Ashes which Come from several Places.
SEVERAL sorts of Ashes, come from POLAND to DANTZtCK, which are marked with Crowns, that mark being set on by a sworn Officer thereto appointed in the following manner. The Ashes being Unladen out of the Ships upon the Ash wharfe; the Barrels are laid in one two three or four Rows, over against each other, at such a distance as the Officer may easily go betwixt the Rows, which he doth as follows. He carrys with him a long large Knife, and a Cooper's Adds, with the latter he holds down the Staves of the Belly of the Barrels, in order to get his Knife in at the Chinks or joints, to see whether the Ashes be clean or no, and after stirring his Knife about, if he finds the Goods to be clean and white, he orders the Workman to mark the Fatt with the Crown and the Arms of the City, which they burn in it; It is not his business in the least to take care, whether they they are soft or hard: But if they're fowl and not white enough, then he Marks them by striking his Adds twice a cross the uppermost Stave of the Barrel, that is exactly in the middle, And this sort is generally less in value, than the Crown'd, and at AMSTERDAM is sold from two FLEMISH Dollars to three per Last less than the Crown'd ; 'tis called Brack, and if it be yet slighter, 'tis called Bracks Brack, that is slight or simple Brack, being marked with deep cutt Notches in the Hoops, without any burnt mark. This slighter sort is commonly called Wood Bracks they coming from the same Earth, and being part of the same sort of Ashes with the other, but not here distinguished for being wet; and these are also 10 fl. Cheaper in proportion.
Of Konigsberg Ashes.
THE Ashes brought to KONIGSBERG from POLAND, LITHUANIA, and RUSSIA are brackt or markt as at DANTZICK, only with a different mark. The best is markt with a Bears claw burnt on the Barrel, and where you find it wanting you may conclude, it is Brack, which is called Hoorn at AMSTERDAM, and the rebate of the price is four FLORINS POLISH money, and at AMSTERDAM, six FLORINS per Last; and that which does not come up to the sort called Hoorn is Bracks Brack and is marked as at DANTZICK, with this difference that the rebate at KONIGSBERG is 8 and at AMSTERDAM 12 FLORINS.
Of Riga Ashes.
ASHES are also brought from RUSSIA, COURLAND, and other Places to RIGA, and are there Bracked and marked, as beforementioned, but there is a Difference in the Hoops, which are called Spieged boll: And the other sort commonly called Beeren Klaw, or Bears Claw, marked with a burnt mark of a Hand and Star, is sold at RIGA for four dollars the Last, at AMSTERDAM for nine Guilders less than the Spiegel boll; if it will not come up to Spiegelboll, 'tis called Brack and the Barrels are marked with a deep Notch Exactly in the middle; And the Rich or best Brack, which is mixed with the Spiegel boll, has a Star burnt on one end. At RIGA one Barrel of Boll, is worth two of Brack, and at AMSTERDAM, you may have three of Brack for two of Spiegel.
A Discourse of Pot ashes.
POT ASH is coming so Generally into use, that if the Lye necessary to a Tunn of Soap differs, only Ten or Twelve, from that of Waydashe, the Soap boilers use Pot ashes in its stead, which renders some skill in that as necessary as in Waydash or Willowash. First we must look after the purity of the Colour, that it be Blew without any mixture of Green or Earth, Salt or Stone, like Pot ashes, or any other Ashes, or that any fine Blew Waydashe be amongst it, all which you must have especial regard to in your choice; for some Pot ashes, which comes from RIGA, is neither half so good, nor worth half so much as the best, which comes from KONIGSBERG, or DANTZICK. Those who judge of Pot ashes by their burning; and the large quantity of Lye that drops, whether thick foul, or clear, as soon as ever the matter turns to Ashes, ought rather to conclude, concerning the quantity or weight of the Ashes; than to infer that they are strong and good: besides there is of Pot ashes which when it is new or at first coming, you find as well coloured as the best, if you attempt to use it then; but if kept awhile or is old, it grows weak; and the longer it is kept the feebler it becomes; for the great clots dissolve and break and it turns like the unsettled or unclotted Waydashe when exposed to the Air, or crumbles like a Medlar; so that we should first consider whether it be the best sort.
From KONIGSBERG comes frequently, very indifferent Pot ashes, which is yet better than that of RIGA, and often better than the DANZICK. Tho' I question not but every Place, the Burners diligently aim at the best. From DANTZICK there comes a sort of good Ashes, well as from KONIGSBERG, which are a sort of RIGA Ashes.
But to pursue my first Design, to instruct my Reader, how to know the best Pot ashes: Then as far as the bare Eye will lead him, he ought to see that they be first of a Beautiful Colour, and Blew. Secondly that they be Clotted together in Large Pieces, streaked with White throughout, as the Blew Whet stone is with a White-Grey. Thirdly, that as soon as they begin to be touched with the Lye, They become Immediately Glutinous, and when you find them Glutinous, they are also greasy and slippery. These are three very Good Signs.
To try the difference in the Goodness of Potashes yet farther, and that we may be able to distinguish betwixt Good and better. Take out of every Barrel, you design to prove, an equal quantity, viz., a Pound or more; and put each Pattern into a Pot apart, pour upon each an equal quantity of Water, set them in a Proper Place, and let them stand Ten, Fifteen, Twenty, or Twenty four Hours, stirring them very well till all be dissolved, then Examine which Pot hath the clearest Lye, and which is best Dissolved, and that which you find so is certainly the best at this time; tho' the other may come to be good in time; and then which is of the best Colour when dissolved is best. And by this rule you may also examine, which is the second best, and which is the worst; also when the Lye is clear and throughly dissolved you may find Earth, Sand or other dross or sediment at the Bottom; wherefore take a piece of DUTCH Soap, of the bigness of a Wallnut; and put into one of the potts to the Lye, and if it swims at the top, add just so much Water as will cause the piece of Soap to sink to the Bottom, then immediately take out the piece of Soap and put it into one of the other pots of Lye, and if it swims pour in Water as before till it sinks and so on from one Pot to another; and that Pot that receives the most Water before the Soap sinks, you may firmly conclude to contain the firmest and best Ashes, and you may judge of the rest in proportion to the quantity of Water you find in them. But notwithstanding all this care you will find sometimes a sort of Ashes, which produces a thick Lye, and presently turns to a slimy mothery substance, and will float the Soap and take as much Water as the best sort of all.
Tho' this is asserted by some, yet according to my opinion it is hardly possible. The clear and well dissolved Lye, differs very much in value, from that which will not dissolve, and remains hard and stiff; and tho' not only the Soapboilers beat it and use it in Soap boiling, without any inconvenience, but the Whitsters, Thread dressers, Glass makers, and others sometimes follow their Example, yet the clear and well dissolved is the strongest, best and most certain, and the thick is indeed only fit for Soapboilers.
'Twill not be amiss to add directions how to make an exact Calculation of the strength and goodness of the Ashes by the quantity of Water; as for instance, Having put into each Pot one Pound of Pot ashes, and, to try, a quart of Water, but upon examination you find that the first pot will bear before the Soap sink fifteen sixteenths of a quart more (more or less as it happens) the second will bear twelve sixteenths more, the third ten, and the fourth eight, and so on; then state the question as follows, viz., if one Pound holding thirty one sixteens of Water, cost three pence, what ought to be paid for Twenty one Sixteens, Twenty six Sixteens, or Twenty four Sixteens in Proportion; and work it according to the Arithmetical Rule. You may also take another way by the quantity of Lye, stating the question thus, If Fifteen Sixteens of a Quart of Lye cost three pence, what will Twelve Sixteens of a Quart? and so on in Proportion. The same Method may also be taken with the Sand, Earth, stone, dross and whatever is found undissolved in the Lye; as for Example, If in one pot containing one Pound weight of Ashes, I find not melted, and that is not Pot ash, the quantity of an Ounce when dryed or one 16th; therefore in the Hundred Weight there must be in proportion Six Pound and a quarter of the same dross, and consequently the Ashes are so much less worth: And you may take the same Measures in computing all the defects and faults, tho' they are not here Particularized. Tho at present these sorts of Goods grow yearly better, as those marked A.B.C. that seemed to appear rather fryed in a Pan than Burnt, and yet were very little faulty : Sometimes you have these of one Stiver and sometimes of three Stivers, and it happens to differ more one Year than another; so ANNO. 1690. most Ashes lookt only as if they had been fryed in a Pan, but yet were of an extraordinary Beautiful Colour, mostly Grey, and the Ashes proved very well: 'Twould be too tedious to Particularize any more on this Subject ; which is at present come to such a perfection that every Ash Burner of a Wood, sets his particular mark upon his Barrels as FISCH S is A.T. X.
A Short Appendix Informing What Pot and Waydashes are ; And How Made.
THESE Ashes being not only used in all Dye Houses, but also found necessary in almost every particular Dye, it cannot therefore be Labour lost, to describe the Nature of them, and to inform how they are made. We have before in the Universal Instruction for Dying, being the first Part of this Book, hinted what these Ashes are, and how prepared; but, upon consideration, that that Subject, seem'd to be a little too briefly Handled there, we shall here treat it more at large.
To make Pot ashes, they take clean Wood ashes particularly those of hard Woods and (for the greater certainty) glowing hot, that they may the better extract their fatness : These they Dissolve in boiling hot Water, which Operation produces a very sharp Lye; which if they have 4 Kettle full or more they prepare as follows; First they fill one half full (always taking care that the Kettles are Iron, not Copper, or a little more, and above the Kettle they place a Fatt filled with the mentioned Lye, towards the bottom whereof they clap a little Tap. They make a very good Fire under the Kettle, in order to Dry up the Watery Part of the Lye; which as soon as it begins to boil away pretty fast, they set the Tap in the Lye Fatt, a running into the Kettle, the Stream being about the bigness of a Straw, to supply that Part which Evaporates. Then Stirring it about Diligently, they boil the the Lye by degrees till it boils Thick, when it begins to make a Noise like Stroaks in the Air, Occasion'd by the thick Salt which the Lye Yields, and is settled to the bottom; After which they diligently stir it continually, and by keeping it hot evaporate all it's Moisture, till it becomes a Brownish, sharp, thick, warm, stony Substance, and then 'tis dug or broken out of this Kettle, and clapped upon bright burning Coals, till it becomes White, Gray or Blewish. This is the preparation of what is called Pot ashes, and is performed chiefly at DORY and TAUTENBU not far from JENO.
Wayd Ashes are prepared in the same manner, from the Ashes of burnt Wayd, that is Willow. The French frequently instead of these Wayd or Willow ashes, use Wine dross or Lee Ashes, particularly the thick Lees which the Brandy Distiller, after having extracted all its Spirit and moisture, leaves as a CAPUT MORTUTIM behind: This they dry and burn, and by making Lye of it boiling and preparing as above recited in the Case of Pot ashes, except its Saline Substance, and this they call CENDRES GRAVELLES, or POTASSE, or CENDRES CUITES. In FRANCE they use Calcined Tartar sometimes, which they Calcine to white sharp Ashes in an open Vessel upon the Fire.
'Tis notwithstanding undoubtedly certain that there is no real difference in all these Lixivial Salts, in their Vertue and Operation, but one is really as good as the other, tho' they differ very much in the Price, a Pound of Tartar costing more than forty Pound of Oak or Birch. However in the Preparation of all these Lye Salts, care must be taken that it be well performed. Those Ashes are always best that don't run to Water, or dissolve in the Celler for if they do that, they have been falsifyed with Rock Salt, or Salt Peter, which last happens, when the Ashes have stood a long time before boiling out of the Lye, and contracted some Moisture from the Air; after the Boiling then they incline towards the Nature of Salt peter, which Spoils their Operation.
Which is that they Heighten, and Subtilize Dyes or Colours to a great degree, an Instance of which you may observe, by taking a Glass full of thin Brasil Suds or infusion, into which if you put a little Pot ash Lye, it turns it from a bright Purple to a Violet Colour. Or grind a little Sap Green in fair Water, to which add a small quantity of Pot ashe Lye, and it will change it immediately to a very bright Yellow. The fading colours extracted from Flowers, as Water tinctured with red Roses, upon the addition of a little Lye becomes Green ; and a little Blew.. lake dissolved in Water, will turn Green upon putting in a little of this Lye: But this Lye utterly spoils the Black Dye, by turning it to the bright colour, of the infusion of Gall. Now in the little foregoing Tract of Silk Dying, I remember 'tis directed to rince the black Silks out in Pot ashe Lye yet it requires some consideration whether it really doth any good or rather no hurt.
The INDIANS burn an Ash from the leaves of a certain Tree called ADAM'S Fig tree, and boil it up till it becomes a very sharp Lye, in which they soak their Raw Silk just as it comes Yellow from the Silk Worms, so long till it becomes white as Snow, as TAVERNIER tells us in his Voyage to INDIA, Chap. 7, where he describes the Kingdom of ASEM.
Undoubtedly this Pot ashe, and all WoodAsh Lye must be extraordinary strong when 'tis several times boiled with unslaked Lime and Water, as the Soap boilers do, for then it becomes so corrosive and sharp that it Crumbles Hair and Feathers to pulse.