Textile & Fashion-related excerpts from
600 Miscellaneous Valuable Receipts worth their weight in gold

Pub. L Johnson & Co, Pennysylvania in 1860

This book covered a little of everything. Large sections are devoted to veterinary medicine and culinary recipes for canning and preserving. It also contained a substantial section of recipes for dyeing fabric and leather, and a number of cosmetic recipes for pomades, hair oils and perfumes.

In the forward, the author mentions that these receipts are the result of 30 years of collecting, which moves back the possible dates for which these techniques can be used.

Receipts for Dyeing Fabric

No. 159. General Remarks on Dyeing.
Cleanliness in dyeing is very essential. The vessel and the articles to be dyed must be rid of grease and dirt, as grease resists the colouring-particles and dirt leaves a stain. Soft water should always be used for dyeing. Vessels used for dyeing small articles should generally be wash-basins, small copper and tinned pans, and sufficiently large that the dyeing-liquor be not spilled by dipping the articles in and out when dyeing. The quantity of liquor generally necessary for dyeing a dress of muslin, crape, sarcenet, cambric, &c., is about three quarts; for a larger dress, a proportionate quantity. The dyeing-utensils are simple, being composed of tubs, kettles, horse, or a couple of lathed benches, for the purpose of placing the goods upon when they come from the dye. The horse may be in form of a carpenter's stool. A doll, which is used for beating blankets, counterpanes, &c. in the tub, in order to clean them. For this doll some use an article similar to a pavior's mall, but of smaller dimensions: others have a circular piece of wood, two inches thick, in which four legs are fastened on the under side, and in the centre a'pretty long handle, with a cross-piece put through it to work it with. Against the wall or a post fasten a hook or a pin to put on your skeins, and with a small stick wring them out. In fancy-dyeing the various shades of cambric, a winch is put in frequent use. The liquor should always be stirred with a spoon, rod, or any thing that is clean, previous to the article being dipped in it, to cause the colouring-particles to be equally diffused, so that the article to be dyed receives its colour uniformly; and it is also necessary that the article be moved in and out quickly, and opened to receive the colour more evenly. Colours generally look much darker when wet, therefore allowance should generally be made for drying, which should always be done in a warm room, pinned or stretched to a line.

No. 160. Aluming.
Is a preparation necessary for some colours in order to receive the colouring-particles, such as crimson, scarlet, purple, and some other colours. If any article is directed to be alumed, be careful to rid it well of the soap-suds, as alum turns soap to grease. When the article is put in the alum-liquor, it is to be well dipped in and out and opened, to receive his preparation more equally, for an hour, or all night, if circumstances admit; and, when alumed, it must be well wrung out and rinsed in two waters, and then dyed, the sooner the better, before getting dry. Note.-The aluming of silks ought to be done cold, or it will be deprived of its lustre.

No. 161. Preparing of the Dye-Liquors, or Scalding the Wood.
Having something like the end of a tub, about one foot deep, with a copper bottom, bored full of holes about a quarter of an inch in diameter, lay a piece of rather coarse sheeting on this; lay it all together on another tub; fill it with the wood to be scalded. Then, having a copper boiler full of boiling water, fill the tub which contains the wood with boiling water; stir it during the time it is going through; fill it up again, and so repeat the operation till you have got all the strength from the wood. The criterion by which to know when the strength is gone from the wood is the paleness of the liquor as it runs through. This operation is considered superior to boiling the wood in a copper boiler, especially for the ground wood: but either way will answer. The method of rendering the liquor stronger of course is by evaporation, in a copper vessel with a constant fire under it. The chips of dyewood are generally superior to the ground wood, as they are not so likely to be adulterated.

No. 162. Pink on Silk.
After aluming, (see receipt No. 160,) handle the goods to be dyed in peach-wood liquor till of the colour desired; then take out, and put in a little alum-liquor; handle the goods a little longer, take out, rinse in water, and finish. Note.-In most cases where the shade is not dark enough, the operation must be repeated.

No. 163. Brown on Silk.
Alum your silk, (see No. 160.) Then take 1 part of fustic-liquor and 3 parts of peach-wood liquor; handle in these till it becomes a good brown; (a little logwood-liquor will darken your shade, if required;) hedge out and put in a little alum-water; again put in your goods, handle a little longer, then take out, drain, rinse well, and finish. Note.-By varying the peach-wood and fustic, various shades may be obtained.

No. 164. Green on Silk.
Take green ebony, boil it in water, and let it settle. Take the clean liquor, as hot as you can bear your hands in it, and handle in it your goods till of a bright yellow. Then take water, and put in a little sulphate of indigo; handle your goods in this till of the shade wanted. Note-The ebony may previously be boiled in a bag, to prevent it from sticking to the silk.

No. 165. Sulphate of Indigo.
Take 3 pounds of vitriol and 1 pound of ground indigo; put in a little at a time, and keep stirring till all dissolved. Let stand for 24 hours, and then it is ready for use.

No. 166. Blue on Silk.
Indigo, same as for green; you will have a blue. Note.-The silk ought to be boiled in white soap and water and made quite white, and then rinsed in lukewarm water.

No. 167. Black on Silk.
Take 1 ounce of bluestone of vitriol, 2 ounces of copperas, and 1/2 ounce of nitrate of iron. Mix all together with as much water as will do one piece; have the water a little warm. Hedge in this 6 times, backward and forward; take out, and rinse in water. Take another tub, and put in it as much logwood-liquor that has in it 1 pound of logwood and 1 ounce of fustic-liquor; hedge in this liquor with a sufficient quantity of water till black; wash out, and finish. Note.-In both processes, let them have a chance to air in drying.

No. 168. Blue Black on Silk.
First run through a mordant of nitrate of iron and water; then run through pearlash-water; then through nitrate of iron again; then put them through logwood-liquor, with a little bluestone of vitriol dissolved in it. If not dark enough, repeat the operation.

No. 169. Maroon on Silk.
To 3 pounds silk take 1/2 pound cudbear; put it in water, and let it boil; then put in your silk, and let it boil a few minutes. Keep your silk well handled; take out, and you will have a good handsome colour. To change the shade, put in 2 pounds common salt, and operate as before: this will vary the shade. To vary it still further, take the silk, after boiling it the first time without the salt, and handle it in pearl- ash-water, or in cream of tartar, and you will have a handsome blue.

No. 170. Orange on Silk or Cotton.
Take 1 pound silk, 1 ounce annotto, 2 ounces pearlash, arid boil them well together. Turn in your goods; when boiled 10 minutes, take out, wash, and finish. If this orange is dark, handle the goods at hand-heat. Note.-These goods must be well washed out in soap and in aluming them you may use a little sugar of lead.

No. 171. Gray on Silk.
For a silk dress: Take 4 or 6 ounces of fine powered galls, and pour on them boiling water; handle our silk in this for 20 or 30 minutes. In another urn, dissolve a piece of green copperas about the size of a nut. Handle your silk through this, and it till be a gray, more or less dark, according to the quantity of drugs.

No. 172. Slate on Silk.
To make a slate, take another pan of warm water and about a teacupful of logwood-liquor, pretty strong and a piece of pearlash of the size of a nut. take the above gray-coloured goods and handle a little in this liquor, and it is finished. Note.-If too much logwood is used, the colour will be too dark.

No. 173. Olive on Silk.
By adding a little fustic-liquor to the above slate, it will form an olive: it may be necessary to run them through a weak pearlash-water to sadden them. Wash in two waters for the above three colours. They will keep their colour very well.

No. 174. Stone on Silk.
Take the coloured gray, (see Receipt No. 171.) Add a sufficient quantity of purple archil to the gray liquor. To give them a red sandy cast, add a little red archil. Simmer the silk in this a few minutes. Rinse in one or two cold waters. Dry in the air. The red archil is made from purple archil, by adding a small quantity of vitriol and water, which will redden it.

No. 175. To dye a Silk Dress Brown.
Take 8 ounces sumach, 4 ounces logwood, 8 ounces camwood or madder; boil these drugs in water, then cool down your liquor; wet out your silks; then enter them; handle well; wash out as usual. For a mulberry cast, add as much purple archil as may be necessary.

No. 176. Drab on Silk.
For a silk dress: Take 4 ounces archil, 1 ounce madder; enter and handle the goods. This may be saddened by taking out your goods and dissolving in the liquor a piece of green copperas, the size of a nut; again handle in this liquor. Or, what is still better, instead of copperas, use a little pearlash to sadden with.

No. 177. Dove on Silk.
Take Brazil logwood and sumach; vary the quantities as you want your shade; boil them in water, then enter your goods, handle well, and sadden with green copperas.

No. 178. Yellow on Silk.
Boil quercitron-bark in a copper pan for 20 minutes, any quantity you please. Dip a sufficient quantity to cover your silk in another copper pan, or tinned vessel, to which add a small quantity of muriate of tin; pass your silks first through warm water, and wring them out; then put them into this pan of dye-water, and handle them with a clean stick till cold; when cold, take out, throw out your liquor, take from the first pan as much liquor as before; handle in this 10 minutes, then add muriate of tin according to shade wanted. Rinse out in its own liquor, and dry in a warm room. Annotto affords an orange yellow with equal quantities of pearlash, and gives out its colour to silk in warm water. Turmeric gives out its colour in a similar manner. The roots of barberry afford a yellow of themselves when boiled in water.

No. 179. Crimson on Silk.
Take cudbear, boil it in water; then just rinse or handle your silks in it for a few minutes, you have the shade wanted. Chamber-lye or any alkaline solution will change the colour.

No. 180. Flesh- Colour on Silk.
Having first thoroughly cleaned your silk in the usual manner, rinse in warm water; then handle them in a very slight water of alum and tartar,-so slight that you could hardly taste it. Then, if you have been dyeing pinks, (Receipt No. 162,) take some of the old liquor, handle in it till of the shade wanted. The liquor must not be too strong, or the shade will be too heavy.

No. 181. Brown on Woollen Cloth, or Cloths of any description.
The quantity of woods to be regulated according to the quantity of goods to be dyed. For instance, a pair of men's pantaloons, being first well cleaned from all grease: take 1 pound red-wood, hypernick, or peach-wood, 1 pound fustic, put them in a copper kettle, boil them, then cool down so as to bear in it your hand; then put in a small quantity of cream of tartar; agitate the water; then enter your goods, handle them till they come to a boil, 5 or 10 minutes; take out the goods, put in a strong solution made of 4 ounces copperas, again cool down, re-enter the goods, again bring them to a boil; take out; rinse well in water. (Finished.)
This process makes a good substantial brown, and might be varied in the shade by varying the quantities of woods in their proportion,-also by adding a little alum in the saddening. This is somewhat of an olive.

No. 182. A Brown on the Red Cast.
Take 2 pounds red-wood, 1 pound fustic; proceed in every respect as in Receipt No. 181: the desired shade will be obtained. The quantity of dye-woods may be regulated according to the quantity of goods to be dyed; in No. 181 also, the copperas and tartar. (On woollen, of course.)

No. 183. Olive-Brown.
For a pair of pantaloons, providing they weigh 3 pounds, take 2 pounds fustic, 1 ounce logwood, 4 ounces common madder, 2 ounces peach-wood; boil them up; then cool down your liquor; enter your pantaloons; bring the liquor to a boil; let it boil half an hour, occasionally turning over; take out; cool down your liquor; put in 2 ounces dissolved copperas; handle until deep enough. (For wool.) Any quantity of yarn may be dyed on the same principle.

No. 184. A Brown inclining to Snuff.
Take any quantity of woollen goods; use for every pound 1 1/2 or 2 pounds logwood. First put your logwood into the copper vessel; bring it to a boil; cool down; then enter your goods; bring them to a boil, half an hour, or longer if a large quantity; take out, wash, and finish. Put, however, a little sumach,-about 2 ounces to the pound of logwood. This will be a good shade of brown. To alter this shade, put into your liquor a proportionally small quantity of alum-liquor, again enter the goods: you will have a good handsome shade on silk as well as woollen.

No. 185. A Black inclining to Purple, on Wool and Silk.
Take 4 pounds logwood, 1 pound sumach; boil them in a sufficient quantity of water; cool down with water enough to dye 4 or 5 pounds of silk or wool; enter the goods; bring them to a boil, for 10 minutes; take out, partly cool down; put in about 1 pound copperas; again enter your goods, bring them to a boil, take out, wash, and finish. (Chiefly intended for wool.) N.B.-A pair of pantaloons, or any other article which is old, would not need to be so particular in quantity of dye-stuffs or length of time. It will also answer for cotton, and that without sumach, if the sumach is not at hand. (This is intended chiefly for woollen.)

No. 186. A Black inclining to Brown, on Silk and Woollen.
Take 1 part sumach, 1 logwood, 1 hypernick or peach-wood; boil the dye-stuffs; cool down; put in the silk or woollen according to the quantity of your dye-woods, bring them to a boil, for 10 minutes, take out the goods, cool down; having put in a sufficient quantity of dissolved copperas, again enter the goods, bring to a boil, take out, wash well, and finish. To mix the copperas with alum would materially alter the shade, if a variety was wanted. (This is chiefly intended for wool.)

No. 187. A Jet Black on Wool or Woollen Cloth.
For 7 pounds wool or woollen cloth, take 3 1/2 pounds logwood, 3/4 pound sumach, 3/4 pound fustic; boil these drugs in a sufficient quantity of water for 20 minutes; cool down, put in your goods, bring to a boil half an hour, then take out; cool down your liquor; add copperas, dissolved in water, 1 1/4 pounds, bluestone of vitriol, 2 ounces; again enter your goods, bring to a boil, 15 minutes, take out, wash well in cold water, and finish.

No. 188. Blue Prussian on Woollen.
Take any quantity of calcined copperas, dissolve it in warm water, strong, put in your goods, keep them well handled till the water comes nearly to a boil; still handle 15 minutes; then rinse the goods in cold water; get up another kettle of 1 of urine to 3 of water; bring the water to hand-heat; put in your goods, handle half an hour; again rinse in cold water; get up another kettle of water, hand-heat, and for each pound of goods, 3 ounces prussiate of potash; put some oil of vitriol in the kettle; handle the goods half an hour. If the colour looks green, add a little more vitriol, handle half an hour longer, take out, wash in cold water, and finish.

No. 189. Green on Wool.
For 6 pounds yarn, worsted, or cloth, take 3 pounds fustic, 3/4 pound alum; boil them in a kettle 10 minutes, partly cool down; then put in a small teacupful sulphate of indigo, rake it well up, enter your goods well handled, let boil 20 minutes, (if a larger quantity, boil longer in proportion;) take out, and, if not blue enough, add a little more sulphate of indigo; handle until deep enough. Rinse in cold water, and finish. This shade may be altered in a variety of ways, by adding a little camwood, or logwood, in the first boiling.

No. 190. Lilac on Wool.
Boil up any quantity of archil, according to the quantity of goods you want to dye; cool the liquor a little, enter the goods, handle carefully, until the shade is deep enough, without boiling the liquor, take out, wash, and finish. One pound of archil will dye 41/4 pounds of goods. Silk may be dyed in the same way. The shades may be altered by soda, pearlash, wine, or common salt, adding a little, and re-entering the goods before washing, and handling a little while longer.

No. 191. Drab on Woollen.
For about fifteen pounds of woollen goods, take 3/4 pounds weld, 9 ounces madder, 4 ounces logwood, 3 ounces archil; put them in water, bring them to a boil for 10 or 15 minutes, cool down; enter the goods, boil 15 minutes, wind up; put in 1 ounce alum, 1 1/2 ounce copperas, ground; boil a few minutes longer, during which time handle well; take out, wash, and finish. The above receipt .may serve as a standard of procedure for all the drab shades (which may be altered at pleasure) that can be produced, only varying the quantities of drugs, in some cases adding archil, and in others a little sulphate of indigo. Red tartar and camwood may also be used. The copperas and alum may be varied in quantity. or increased, or the alum left out, thus varying the whole round.

No. 192. Red on Woollen.
For 10 pounds of woollen goods, take 2 pounds alum, 1/2 pound red tartar; boil the goods in this 1 hour, (if a larger quantity of goods, boil longer;) then boil up 4 1/2 pounds peachwood in clean water, cool down to a scald, put in 2 ounces No. 1 tin-liquor, enter the goods, handle until dark enough, and finish. The goods must not be washed between the first and second operations.

No. 193. How to make No. 1 Tin-Liquor.
Take 2 quarts muriatic acid, killed with 24 ounces granulated tin. This will answer for woollen or cotton.

No. 194. How to make No. 2 Tin-Liquor, for Yellow on Woollen.
About 4 parts muriatic acid to 1 part sulphuric acid, killed with granulated tin. This will answer for yellow on cotton, also.

No. 195. Slate on Woollen.
For 10 pounds of woollen goods, take 10 pounds sumach, boil it up 10 minutes, cool down, put in your goods, bring them to a boil a few minutes, take out; put in 4 pounds copperas, dissolve, cool down; re-enter the goods, bring them to a boil, take out, wash, and finish. A quantity of iron-liquor, such as the calico-printers use, would be preferable to copperas.

No. 196. Yellow on Wool.
For 10 pounds of wool, bring a kettle of water to a scald, or to 180 degrees of heat; put in 4 pounds quercitron-bark, (do not allow it to boil, as that would bring out the tannin and dull the yellow,) 1 pound alum, 6 ounces cream of tartar, nearly 1/2 pint No. 1 tin-liquor; stir up the liquor well, allow it to settle 15 minutes, enter the goods keep in until dark enough.

No. 197. Orange on Wool.
First dye the pattern to a full yellow. Then take a clean kettle of water; when a little warm, put in for the above goods 2 pounds madder, peachwood, munjeet, or hypernick; munjeet does very well; put in your goods, keep them well handled, bring the goods to a boil, let boil till dark enough, wash, and finish.

No. 198. For any quantity of Thread in Black.
First take thread and boil it in sumach and water; then let it be immersed in lime-water, cold; then in weak copperas-water, cold; then in lime-water again, cold; then in logwood-liquor, warm; take out, put some copperas-liquor into your logwood-liquor, again put in your goods, handle, and finish. This makes a first-rate black.

No. 199. Turmeric Yellow.
Take about 3 pounds of turmeric, put in a small tub for the purpose; pour on it a tumbler of oil of vitriol, stir it well up; then pour on it hot water, about 2 gallons, stir this well up; then, having half a tubful of water boiling hot from the boiler, pour on it the contents of the small tub; enter 3 pieces, 30 yards each, give them 6 or 8 ends, as the workmen term it, fold up. The next process is to have another tub of water, put in it half a pailful of alum-liquor, give the pieces 3 or 4 ends in this, take out, and finish. Renew with the same quantity for the next 3 pieces, and proceed. Note.-By ends is meant rinsing the pieces backward and forward over the Wince in the tub. Half a hogshead will answer the purpose. It will be understood that these cotton colours are intended for linings or cambrics. It will also be understood that the liquors must be prepared as in Receipt No. 161, or by boiling in a copper cistern; the former is most generally adopted for this kind of dyeing. It will be necessary to have a number of tubs for the different liquors, and in dyeing various shades to have the liquors prepared in readiness.

No. 200. Green on Cotton.
Take as much hot fustic-liquor as will cover 3 pieces, in which is put a very little lime-liquor, put it in a tub, enter your goods, give them 5 ends, hedge them out; take another tub, half full of water, (cold,) put into it a sufficient quantity of blue-stone of vitriol liquor to set the tub, about 2 quarts; enter your goods in this, give them 5 ends, hedge out; then take a couple of pailfuls of the fustic-liquor, renew the first tub, enter 3 pieces more, and so proceed as at first; then renew your blue vitriol tub with half the quantity of liquor, not taking any out, and proceed as at first. In this way do as many the first and second time as you can finish that day; then commence to finish them. Take half a tubful of old fustic-liquor, that has been used once, and put to it 11/2 pailfuls of logwood-liquor; enter your pieces 3 at the time, give them 5 ends, and finish. Renew with a little more logwood-liquor, enough to make them dark enough, having first thrown away a couple of pailfuls from the tub, and renew with the same from the old tub, and so proceed in finishing.

No. 201. Buff on Cotton.
Take as much hot fustic-liquor and water as will half fill a tub, enter 3 pieces, give them 5 ends, hedge out; take another tub of lime-water cold, enter the same pieces, and give them 5 ends in this; take out, and in a short time they will be buff. Renew your first and second tub, and proceed as at first. This is all required for buff.

No. 202. Annotto- Orange on Cotton.
Having prepared your annotto-liquor by boiling it in a copper vessel for 20 minutes, take out your liquor, put it in a tub, partly fill your boiler with water, bring it to a boil; having kept in the boiler the sediment of the annotto, make it strong enough with annotto-liquor to the shade you want to dye; enter 3 pieces when boiling, give them 3 ends, take out; enter them into cold alum-water, give them 4 ends, take out, and finish. Renew your annotto-boiler with a sufficient quantity of annotto-liquor, and proceed as before; then renew your alum-tub, proceed as before in the second process. This finishes them. The liquor that is left in the boiler at night will do to boil the annotto in the next day, so that nothing is lost.

No. 203. Red on Cotton.
Take 3 pieces, enter them into a tub with hot redwood or peachwood liquor, give them 5 ends, then run them into your wince; have another tub, called the spirit-tub, close by, half full of cold water, put into it about 3 tumblerfuls of spirits; them run the pieces from the other wince over the wince of the spirit-tub, give them 5 ends in the spirit-tub, then wind them on the wince of the spirit-tub, then back again to th e red-tub; give them 5 ends without having renewed the tub, they are finished. Throw away the red-tub liquor, put in fresh liquor, and proceed as before; but the spirit-tub must be renewed always; even at night it may be left in a tub, and renewed the next day.

No. 204. Brown on Cotton.
The first process is to give them 5 ends in hot sumach-liquor, or let them lie all night in the large tub, same as for blacks; then give them 5 ends in Copperas, hedge out, give them 5 ends in lime-tub; then hedge out, lay them one side till you get enough to finish that day. You next renew your tubs, and repeat the operation as before. Then comes the finishing part. Make up a tub of hot redwood-liquor, enter 3 pieces, give them 5 ends, put the pieces one side the tub, put in some alum-liquor, stir up, give them 5 ends more, hedge out, and finish.

No. 205. Drab on Cotton.
Take half a tub of hot sumach and fustic liquor; more fustic than sumach, according to shade wanted; enter 3 pieces, give them 5 ends, hedge out; give them 5 ends in the copperas-tub, and finish. Renew your tubs, and proceed as before. The copperas-tub is a half tub of water, with a couple of pailfuls of copperas-liquor to set in the first place; renewed each time.

No. 206. Slate on Cotton.
Make up a tub of about 2 of logwood to 1 of fustic liquor,-both hot; enter 3 pieces; give them 5 ends; hedge out; give them 5 ends in copperas-liquor; have it stronger or weaker, according to shade wanted. This finishes them. Renew your tubs, and proceed as before.

No. 207. Purple on Cotton.
Get up a tub of hot logwood-liquor, enter 3 pieces, give them 5 ends, hedge out; enter them into a clean alum-tub, give them 5 ends, hedge out; get up another tub of logwood-liquor, enter, give them 5 ends, hedge out; renew your alum-tub, give them 5 ends in that, and finish.

No. 208. Black on Cotton.
First take your pieces and boil them in sumach-liquor, in a large copper vessel, if you have it, that will hold 60 or 70 pieces, in which you put about a bushel and a half of sumach; let them stay all night, if it is convenient; take out, and enter them into the lime-tub, 3 at a time; give them 4 ends, hedge out; enter them into the copperas-tub, give them 5 ends, hedge out; enter them into the lime again, give them 4 ends, hedge out; enter them into another tub with tolerably strong logwood-liquor, give them 5 ends; put them to one side of the tub; put in enough copperas-liquor to blacken them, (about a couple of quarts,) then give them a few more ends, and they are finished. With this process it is the same as with the greens. After sumaching, liming, copperasing, and second liming is repeated, till you get as many as will answer you to finish that day, the tubs being renewed after each 3 pieces, then Comes the finishing; after each 3 pieces, the logwood and copperas liquor is thrown away, because the copperas kills the logwood, and so renders it unfit for the next pieces. It is frequently the case that, instead of the first process of sumach-boiling, they collect the old sumach, and fustic, and logwood-liquor, that has no copperas or lime in it, into a large tub, and all the pieces that are spoiled in the other colours they throw into this tub, and let them lie a few days till they are ready to dye blacks, and this answers instead of the sumaching. For the foregoing cotton shades, the pieces are first taken and boiled in a wood or copper cistern, as circumstances may be, in order to take out the sizing, and prepare them to receive the dye.

No. 209. How to put a fine Gloss on Silk.
Take a fair white potato, cut it in very thin slices, pour on it boiling water, let stand till rather cool, take out the slices of potato, run your silk through this water, squeeze out, smooth while damp, and you will have a very superior gloss. It was tried on black silk, and it was found to answer well. If it should not answer on lighter colours, try the following one. If a quantity of silk, of course proportion your potatoes

No. 210. Another way to put a Gloss on Silk.
Instead of a potato, use a small quantity of isinglass; dissolve in water. Use it the same as the above in every particular. 1 ounce of isinglass will answer for 1 pound of silk.

No. 211. Tin-Liquor for Pinks, Scarlets, Crimson, etc.
Take 1 part muriatic acid, and 1 part nitric acid, and kill with tin.

No. 212. Tin-Liquor for Scarlets, Crimson, etc. on Silks.
Take 1 pound nitric and 1 pound muriatic acid, and about 11/2 ounces sal-ammoniac; kill with granulated tin.

No. 213. How to set an Indigo- Vat for Cotton.
Having a sufficiently large vat, nearly fill it with water; put in 30 pounds ground indigo, 50 pounds copperas, 50 pounds slaked lime; occasionally stir it up, for 2 days. When perfectly settled, it is ready for use. When the vat is exhausted, renew with 4 pounds pearlash, 4 pounds lime, and 12 pounds copperas.

No. 214. A Blue- Vat for Silk and Woollen.
Take 8 pounds indigo, and about 2 gallons vinegar, work it well in the mill till fine; if this is not convenient, put them on a slow fire for 24 hours till dissolved; put in 1 pound madder; mix these well, and put them into a vat containing 100 gallons urine; stir well twice a day for one week. It may be then worked, always previously stirring it. This vat continues to be good till exhausted. Mazarine blues, and deep purples, may be managed with this vat and archil-dye; take care to rinse it well from one to the other. Archil forms a dye of itself without mordant, on silk and woollen, when boiled in water.

No. 215. How to dye Straws Red.
Boil ground Brazil-wood in a lye of potash, and boil your straw in it.

No. 216. Blue on Straw.
Take a sufficient quantity of potash-lye, 1 pound of litmus, or lacmus, ground; make a decoction, and then put in the straw and boil it.

Dyeing and cleaning leather

No. 217. Turkey-Red on Leather.
After the skin hast been properly prepared with sheep or pigs' dung, &c., take strong alum-water, and sponge over your skin; when dry, boil a strong gall-liquor, (it cannot be too strong;) then boil a strong Brazil-wood liquor, the stronger the better; take a sponge, dip it in your liqulor, and sponge over your skin: repeat this, till it comes to a full red. To finish your skin, take the white of eggs and a little gum-dragon, mix the two together in 1/2 gill of water, sponge over your skin, and, when dry, polish it with a bottle, or piece of glass prepared for the purpose.

No. 218. Red on Leather.
Red is given by washing the skins, and laying them two hours in galls, then wringing them out, dipping them in a liquor made with ligustrum, alum, and verdigris, in water, and lastly in a dye made of Brazil-wood boiled with lye.

No. 219. Yellow on Leather.
Infuse quercitron-bark in vinegar, in which boil a little alum, and brush over your skins with the infusion. Finish same as No. 217.

No. 220. Another Yellow on Leather.
Take 1 pint whiskey, 4 ounces turmeric; mix them well together; when settled, sponge your skin over, and finish the same as No. 217.

No. 221. Blue on Leather.
For each skin, take 1 ounce indigo; put it into boiling water, and let it stand one night; then warm it a little, and with a brush smear the skin twice over. Finish same as No. 217.

No. 222. Black on Leather.
Put your skin on a clean board, sponge it over with gall and sumach liquors strong, then take a strong logwood-liquor, sponge it over 3 or 4 times; then take a little copperas, mix it in the logwood-liquor, sponge over your skin, and finish the same as No. 217.

No. 223. How to make different Shades on Leather.
The pleasing hues of yellow, brown, or tan-colour are readily imparted to leather by the following simple process: steep saffron in boiling water for a number of hours, wet a sponge or soft brush in the liquor, smear the leather. The quantity of saffron, as well as of water, will of course depend, on how much dye may be wanted, and their relative proportions on the depth of colour required.

No. 224. To dye Leather Purple.
First sponge the leather with alum-liquor strong, then with logwood-liquor strong, or mix them both and boil them, and sponge with the liquor. Finish the same as No. 217.

No. 589. Japan for Leather.
1. Boiled linseed-oil, 1 gallon; burnt umber, 8 ounces; asphaltum, 3 ounces; boil, and add oil of turpentine to dilute to a proper consistence. 2. Boiled oil, 1 gallon; the black of Prussian blue to colour. Prussian blue, when heated, turns of a black colour; thus the black japanned cloth used for table-covers is prepared by painting the cloth with Prussian blue and boiled oil, and then drying it by the heat of a stove; when, in the drying, it takes its intense colour.

No. 590. Jet for Harness and Boots.
Three sticks of the best black sealing-wax dissolved in 1/2 pint spirits of wine; to be kept in a glass bottle, and well shaken previous to use. Applied with a soft sponge.

No. 591. To clean French Kid Gloves.
Put the gloves on your hands and wash them, as if you were washing your hands, in some spirits of turpentine, until quite clean; them hang them up in a warm place, or where there is a current of air, and all smell of the turpentine will be removed. N.B.-This method is practised in Paris, and, since its introduction into this country, thousands of pounds have been saved or gained by it.

No. 592. How to clean Gloves.
Wash them with soap and water, then stretch them on wooden hands, or pull them into shape without wringing them; next rub them with pipe-clay, or yellow ochre, or a mixture of the two in any required shade, made into a paste with beer; let them dry gradually, and, when about half dry, rub them well, so as to smooth them and put them into shape; then dry them, brush out the superfluous colour, cover them with paper, and smooth them with a warm iron. Other colours may be employed to mix the pipe-clay besides yellow ochre.

Cosmetic Recipes

No. 77. To make a very superior Hair- Oil.
Take half an ounce of alkanet-root, which may be bought for a few cents at the druggist's. Divide this quantity into four portions, and tie up each portion in a separate bit of new bobinet or clean thin muslin. The strings must be white: for instance, coarse white thread or fine cotton cord. Take care to omit any powder or dust that may be found about the alkanet, as if put in it will render the oil cloudy and muddy. Put these little bags into a large tumbler or a straight-sided white-ware jar, and pour on half a pint of the best fresh olive-oil. Cover the vessel, and leave it untouched for three or four days or a week, being careful not to shake or stir it; do not press or squeeze the bags. Have ready some small clear glass vials, or a large one that will hold half a pint. Take out carefully the bags of alkanet and lay them in a saucer. You will find that they have coloured the oil to a beautiful crimson. Put into the bottom of each vial a small portion of any perfume you fancy: for instance, oil of orange-flowers, oil of jessamine, oil of roses, oil of pinks, extract of violets. The pungent oils (cloves, cinnamon, bergamot, lavender, orange-peel, lemon, &c.) are not good for the hair, and must not be used in scenting this oil. Having put a little perfume into the vials, pour into each through a small funnel sufficient of the coloured olive-oil to fill them to the neck. Then cork them tightly, and tie a circular bit of white kid leather over the corks. To use this oil, (observing never to shake the bottle,) pour a little into a saucer or some other small vessel, and with the finger rub it into the root of the hair. The bags of alkanet may be used a second time.

No. 78. Another Hair- Oil.
A very excellent hair-oil, which answers all common purposes, is made by mixing 1 ounce of brandy with 3 ounces of sweet oil. Add any scent you prefer; a selection can be got at the drug-store.

No. 79. Another excellent Hair-Oil.
Take 1 quart olive-oil or fine lard-oil. 21/2 ounces spirits of wine. 1 ounce cinnamon powder. 5 drachms bergarnot-oil. Heat them together in a large pipkin, then remove it from the fire, and add four small pieces of alkanet- root; keep it closely covered for 6 or 8 hours, let it then be filtered through a funnel lined with blotting or filtering paper.

No. 80. To make Imitation of Ox-Marrow Hair- Grease.
Take fresh hog's lard, and melt it on a stove in any tin vessel; when melted, add such fine oil as you wish to perfume it to your fancy, such as extract of violet, oil of orange-flowers, oil of jessa-mine, oil of roses, oil of pinks, &c. The quantity you must use will depend on the quantity of lard you use. And to make it a bright yellow, take a little turmeric and boil it in a little lard, so that the colouring will be extracted; strain it, and pour it into your scented lard as much as will give the desired colour; this must be done when the scented lard is milk-warm, and must also be well mixed. Then pour it into wide-mouthed vials, such as are used for ox-marrow. Keep the vials well corked. To make it a purple colour, take a little alkanet-root, and proceed the same as with the yellow.

No.81. To make Rose Tooth Powder.
Take 3 ounces prepared chalk. 1/4 ounce cinnamon, ground. 1/2 ounce orris-root, pulverized. 1/2 ounce rose-pink. Make all very fine by pulverizing it, and mix. (Ready.)

No. 588. How to make Otto of Roses.
/4 Gather the flowers of the hundred-leaved rose, (rosa centifolia,) put them in a large jar or cask, with just sufficient water to cover them; then put the vessel to stand in the sun, and in about a week afterward the otto (a butyraceous oil) will form a scum on the surface, which should be removed by the aid of a piece of cotton.

No. 82. To make very nice Cologne.
Take 2 drachms oil of lemon. 2 drachms oil of rosemary. 1 drachm oil of lavender. 2 drachms oil of bergamot. 10 drops oil of cinnamon. 2 drops oil of rose. 10 drops oil of cloves. 8 drops tincture of musk. 1 quart alcohol, (or spirits of wine.)
Mix all together, and shake well, when it will be ready to use. The older it gets, the better.

No. 83.
A remedy for Black Teeth.
Take equal parts of cream of tartar and salt; pulverize it, and mix it well. Then wash your teeth in the morning, and rub them with the powder.

No. 84. How to clean the Teeth and Gums.
Take1 ounce myrrh, in fine powder. 2 tablespoonfuls honey. A little green sage, in very fine powder.
Mix them well together, and wet the teeth and gums with a little every night and morning.

No. 85. A Lip-Salve.
Take 2 ounces oil of lemon. 1 ounce white wax. 1 ounce spermaceti.
Melt these ingredients, and while warm add 2 ounces rose-water and 1 ounce orange-flower water. These make Hudson's cold cream,-a very excellent article. The lips are liable to excoriation and chaps, which often extend to considerable depth. These chaps are generally occasioned by mere cold. The above salve will be found efficacious in correcting these evils.