• The Secretes of the Reverend Maister Alexis of Piemont containyng excellente remedies against diuerse diseases, woundes, and other accidentes. Newlie corrected and amended, and also somewhat enlarged in certaine places, whiche wanted in the first edition. Translated out of Frenche into Englishe, by Willyam Warde. Imprinted at London, by Jhon Kyngston, for Jhon Wight. Anno Domini, 1580.

    Author: Ruscelli
    Modern English (post-1500)
    Published in 1580
    Renaissance Dyeing Terms
    1500 AD - 1599 AD


Sope to get out all spottes of cloth.

Take a pound of Alome and burne it, sixe unces of pouder of Ireos, and lette all be well beaten in pouder togither. Then take two pound and a halfe of white sope, & halfe an oxe gall , and the white of an egge or two, and incorporate them well togither. Then take the Alome and the pouder of Ireos, and incorporate them all togither, and put into them a litle Sal nitrum, or Salt peter. This done, put into it as much of the sayd incorporated sope, as wil make it haue a substance or body, to the intent that ye may fashion and make rounde balles in a good firme and fast paste or dowe, and so dry them in the shadowe, and not in the Sunne, bicause the Sunne is contrary to it. And if you make them for to sel, make them by measure and by waight, and when you wil take out your spot, wet first the cloth up and downe, then rubbe it well with the Sope, and cloth against cloth: This done, you shall washe it with cold water, untill yr water waxe cleere: and if you think it not be out altogither, let the cloth dry, and do unce again as you did before, and the spottes wil goe out.

Another like secrete.

Take a pound of white Sope of Venise, the yelkes of sixe Egges, and halfe a sponefull of beaten salt, and as much iuice of Beetes as will suffice to incorporate the saude Sope, & make therof a cleauing paste therof you shall forme and make your balles, and let them dry in the shadowe, and when they be dry, wet your cloth up and downe with cleare water, and then rubbe it with Sope, and washe it as is afore declared, and the spottes wil go away.

Another like.

Take a pound of white Sope cutte very small, the gall of an Oxe, or he Goate, Alumen catinum, of eche of them an unce, the yelkes of two Egges, and a few ashes very fine, and incorporate well altogither with the sope in a morter, and so make thereof paste, wherof you shall make balles, and do as before is sayd.

Another meane.

Take the gall of an olde Oxe, and a pound of Fenigreke made in pouder, a pound and a halfe of white sope, three flagons of strong lie, and put altogither, and seeth it on a slowe fire, until it diminishe of the halfe. Then washe what spot you wil with it, refreshing it diuers times with cold water, and it wil take it away.

Another means for spottes, or fatte, or Oile.

Take a pound of roche Alome, and as much fresh unsleckt lime, sixe unces of Alumen fecis , three alye pounde of white Sope cutte small, foure pound of cleere water, and lette it boile a certaine space in some vessell that is not fattie, and then straine it, and when you will occupie of it, let it be luke warme, and wette the spottes with the sayde water, on bothe sides of the cloth, and the cloth togither, then washe it wyth cleere water, and the spots will be gone, then washe it againe with a little sope and freshe water, and at the second or third time, they wil without al peraduenture go out. Also for spots you may take two pints of running water, the gal of an oxe, foure unces of Alome De fece burnt, and three unces of Alumen fecis broiled, and two scruples of Campire, and put al togither, and seeth it, until halfe be diminished. Then straine it, and washe what spots you will with it, and within twice or thrice washing, they will goe out.

To take spottes out of Skarlet or Veluet, without hurting the coloure.

Take the Herbe called Lanaria, of the Apothicaries Condisi, and gette out the iuice of it, and lay it upon the spotte the space of two or three houres, then washe it well with warme water, and if you thinke the spotte not well taken away, do it unce more, and if the cloth be not died in gaine, put to it a little sope, with a nother litle quantitie of the said iuice and incorporate it well, and so washe the spotte with it, and it will goe out.

To take spottes out of white Silke or Veluet, in Greene or Crimsen Veluet.

Take strong Aqua vite of three distillings, and wette the spotte with it up and downe: Then take the white of an newe layde egge, and sprede it uppon the spotte, and so sette it in the Sunne to dry. This done, washe it trimly with fresh and cleere water, and so wring well the spotte betweene your hands, and it wil go out, and do this twice at the least: for the coloure wil not perish nor decay. Also for a cloth in grane take Alome water, and wash well the spotte with it, rubbing it hard, cloth against cloth, this done, washe it againe wyth cleere water, and in twise doing it, it will goe out. Also for the like effeate, take roche Alome, Tartre of tonnes, and white Sope, of eche of them unces, and make them into very fine pouder: This done, take two Oxe galles and an earthen potte that is not in any wise fatte or greasie, and putte into it handsomely at your discretion, and so sette it on the fire, and when it beginneth to seeth, cast in by and by the oxe gall, and the pouder, and let it so boile until it be diminished of the third or fourth part. Then washe the spotte with this water three or foure times, and at euery time dry the clothe. And finally renue it with fresh water, and you shall see the effect.

To take out a spot of inke or wine, of a wollen or linnen cloth.

Take the iuice of Limons, Orenges, or Citrons, and wet the spot with it diuers times, letting it dry at euery time this done, washe it with hot water, and it will goe out. Use also white Sope, with white Vinegre, and the spotts of inke will easily goe out.

To restore the coloure of a cloth, that hath lost it in taking out a spot.

Take a pound of Tartre of white wine, and calcyne it in a fornaise of bricke, untill it be white, and take an unce of it, then take a pinte of strong vinegre and cleere, and put the sayd pouder into it, and so set it on the fire. And when it beginneth to boile, take it by and by off, and it is made: then wet by little and little, the place that hath lost his colours diuers times, and the colour wil come againe.

A water to take all manner of spottes out of cloth of any coloure.

Take two olde Oxe galles, and two scruples of rocke Alome, and as much of Alumen fecis, foure unces of Tartre of white Wine, one scruple of Camphire, and stamp all togither very small: This done, take two Flagons of cleare water, and putte altogither, and so seeth it wyth a slow fire, untill it make no more froth or skimme. Then putte into it three unces of Aqua vite of three distillings, and so keepe it in some vessell of Glasse untill you will occupie it. And if the spotte be in Skarlet, take a corner of the same clothe, and wette it in the sayd water, and rubbe well twise or thrise the spotte, and then washe it againe with cleare water, and it wil goe out. The like may you doe in all sortes of coloured cloth, in taking a little of the like coloured clothe, or other that is nigh unto the colour, wetting it and rubbing it as is aforsaid, and it shalbe done.

To make oile or grease out of a clothe of what coloure so euer it be, without any droppe of water.

Take some sheepes feete, and make them very clean: then seeth them and eat them, and keepe the right bones, the which you shal barne, and make therof a cleane and fine pouder. This done heat the saide pouder, and lay it uppon the spotte, and let it remaine in the Sunne, and when you see that the pouder beginneth to waxe black, take it by and by off, and put other freshe uppon it, and do tis so often that you see the pouder no more blacke, and then the spotte will be gone, and the coloure of the cloth not perished.

Balles of sope for Barbers of diuers sorts and sauours.

First you must note that the Sope is purged, and purified two maner of ways. The first is the Venitian sope being cut smal, must be put in a pot that is not fattie, nor hauing any euil sauoure, and putte into it some Rose water or other sweete waters, or else in this manner following. Take well water and put it into cheuers of Cipers, & seeth it a good while, then straine it, and it will be very odoriferous and sweete: or else putte in the flours of Mirtle tree, of Orenge tree, Cedar tree, Spike, Lauander, Agnus Castus, Sticados, beyonde sea Violets, Sage, and such other odoriferous floures or herbes, or Ceder, Baie, our Ladies glooues, Minte, maioram, Time, and other sweete herbes, and make of all this a composition, and so make a sweete water of diuers sauoures, and so seeth it a little. This done, take of the Sope that swimmeth aboue with a spone, and lay it uppon a newe Tile, and it will incontinent be dry, and shall remaine neate and cleane, bicause the water hathe taken away all the filthe and unauositie of the sope, and therefore will be faire and white without any euill sauoure, hauing augmented the good smell of it. And this is the verye true purging and purifying of it, yet it diminisheth it of an unce or a little more in the pounde. Also another manner is, that you must cutte the Sope very small, or else grate it, and dry it in the Sunne or in an Ouen, and make thereof pouder, passing it thorowe a fine sarce. This done, wette it with Rose water or water of Spike, and lette it dry in the shadow or in the winde, or else for to make it sooner, cutte your Sope and stampe it, and nothing else, and putte unto it some pouder of Inos, storax, and a little Camphyre, and beat it all together, and then make your Balles, and so you maye incontinent after distribute them. True it is that they be not of any great value. But for to incorporate the odoures in the sope for Barbers balles, you must take sixe unces of the sayd sope, and stampe it wel in a morter, & put in it al these things following made into fine pouder, for in this lieth the honoure and perfection of your worke. An unce of Ladanum, four unces of Macaleb, and unce of Anise, three Nutmegges, Maioram, drie Roses, Cipres pouder, eche of them halfe an unce, three unces of Cloues, sixe unces of Irios, eight unces of the floure of Amilum, with as much of Storax liquida, as will lie uppon a pennie, three graines of Muske or foure at the moste, sixe scruples of Camphire, with a litle of the finest sugre that you can get. And let all these things be wel stamped, and incorporated within the sope, and you shal make a paste or dow somwhat fast or firme, of the which you shall forme and make great or small balles as you shall thinke best, and lette them dry in the shadowe, and they will be perfite. For to make also of another sort, take two pounde of the foresayd sope, & stampe it wel, then put into it the iuice of Macaleb, about two unces, and for to know it, note that it is like a corne of wheate, and of the same coloure, but somewhat round and a little greater. And for to gette out the iuice of it, steepe it in Rose water, or other sweete water, and lette it remaine in it, untill it swell. Then stampe it, and putte it in a linnen cloth, and strayne it harde, and the white iuice that commeth out of it, is the iuice of Macaleb, and of the sauour of Macaleb, and the rest that remaineth, you shall drye and make of it pouder, the which you may also occupy bicause it hath the like vertue, and the sauor of Violettes: with that you shall take two unces of Cloues, three unces of Irios, an unce and a halfe of Ladanum, an unce of Storax and all this being made into very fine pouder, let it be incorporated into the Sope, and you shall make a paste or dewe firme and fast, wherof you shal forme and fashion your balles, setting them to dry in the shadow. To make also balles of white sope, take fiue pound of the sayd sope, and put into it foure unces of Irios, two unces of white Sandale, three unces of the floure of Amilum, an unce of Storax, and make all thys into pouder, and stampe wel altogether, and steepe it a litle in Rose water, or Muske water, and you shall make of it a good paste, whereof you shall orme and make your balles euen as you will. Also for to make them simple and good, take foure pound of the sayd white sope, with fiue unces of the pouder of Macaleb, and incorporate them well togither in a morter with the water of Tresie or of Spike, and you shall make a firme and fast dowe, whereof you may make your balles, and they will be very soone dry.

To bringe cloathe that was stayned too his coloure agayne.

Take a pownde of earthen pots brused, and hauing poured upon it, about foure pyntes of Water, let it rest a night. Then poure out the Lye, and put into the same two Oxe Galles, and a handfull of dry birchen Leaues, and let them seeth together halfe an hour long, or untill the Leaues goe to the bottome. Then let it coole, and such colour as you will restore that was stayned, take the shearings or flocks of the cloth of the same colour, and seeth it agayne with the sayde Lye, leauing it so to rest the space of xiii dayes or more: for the Lye will draw unto it selfe the colour of the shearing flocks. Then poure it out, and wash the cloth with it, and it shall receiue his first colour againe.

To take spottes out of cloth.

Take colde Lye made of the Ashes of Beeche, and put to it a little wine Lees, and of the olde claye of some Ouen, put the cloth into it where the spotte is, for it wyll take all the spottes out, than wash youre cloth with cleane water, and dry it in the Sunne. And yf the spottes be not wel taken out, do it agayne as before.

An other way.

Take sixe unces of Alumen Fecis, foure unces of rawe Tarter, two unces of Alome, halfe a Dragme of camphyre, halfe a Dragme of Dragons bloude: stampe them sell, and mingle them well together. Then take sixe unces of an Oxe Galle, three pyntes of cleare water, put all together in a kettle, and seeth it untill it be diminished of the two thirde partes, then straine it thorowe a linnen cloth, and thoughe the Galle nor the Camphyre were not in it, yet the water woulde be strong ynough: when you wyll occupie it, bath the piece of new cloth in the sayde water, and rubbe well the spotte with all, and when the cloth is no more weate with rubbing, weate it agayne, and rubbe the cloth with it untill the spotte be out. This done, take hote water, and washe the place where the spott was: but if the cloth be white take a little Sope with the same water, and distill it, and occupie it as before.

An other way.

Take sixe Oxe Galles, and twice as much rayne water, halfe a pounde of Tartar, an unce of Alome, stampe them small, and take a Glasse full of Vineger, into the which you shall put sixe Dragmes of Vitrioll well brayed, pure all together, and seeth it untill it be diminished of the two thirde partes, and then use it as is afore sayde.

A water to take spottes out of whyte cloth.

Take foure unces of Alumen Fecis, a pynte of water, seeth them untill they be consumed to the fourth parte. Then take whyte Sope and cut it small, & an unce of Alome: put all into the water, and let it stande the space of two dayes, and use it for your whyte cloth as before.

To take spottes of grease and oyle out of all sortes of cloth whyte or other.

Take the Water that Pease hath bene sodden in, and steepe youre cloth where the spotte is in it, and then washe it with cleane riuer Water, and hang it in the Sunne.

An other.

Take colde Lye, Lees of whyte Wyne made a little hoate, and mixe them well together. But you muste take heede they be not to hoate and washe your cloth as before.

To take spottes of wyne out of all maner of cloth.

Take Lye made with ashes of beech, whyte Wyne Lees as much of the one as the other, laye your cloth in it a night, and wash it afterwarde with cold whaie and dry it in the Sunne.

To take all maner of spottes out of Silke.

Take the iuyce of great and rounde Musheroms of a sharpe tast, weate the spottes in it the space of two houres, and then wash them with cleare water, and let them drye.

To take all spottes out of Crymsen Veluet.

Take the ashes made of Vine twigges, and make therewith good Lye, whereof you shall take but a pynte, and put into it halfe an unce of Alumen Fecis, and let it stande a little whyle, and then strayne it.
This done, take a dragme of Alome, halfe a Dragme of Spanish Sope, and half a Dragme of soft Sope, a quarter of a Dragme of common salt, and a quarter of salt Armoniake, halfe a quarter of the iuyce of Celondine, a quarter of the Gall of a Calfe. Put all together and strayne it thorowe a linnen cloth. And when you wyll occupie of the sayde water, take flocks or shearings of Scarlett, and a little Brasill small, seeth al that a little in the sayde water, and then strayne it thorowe a linnen cloth, and you shal haue a fayre water, which wyll take the spottes out of any lyke Crymsen colour. And what colour soeuer your cloth be of, that hath the spottes, the same coloure flockes, or shearing must you take. Notwithstanding if it be not redde, you must leaue out your Brasill.

A water to take all spottes out of cloth of golde and Veluet.

Take rawe redde Arsenicke, Martem Crudum, as much of the one as of the other, and when they be well brayed poure some fayre water upon them, and putting the Herbe Cinkfoyle to it, seeth it unto halfe: and then let it coole, and set it in the Sunne two houres: then washe youre cloth in it, and let it dry in the Sunne.

To make a Sope that taketh out all spottes.

Take a pounde of roche Alome, beate it into pouder: the rootes of Iris of Florence made in pouder, halfe a pounde of new layed Egges, two pound and a halfe of Spanishe Sope, braye the sayde pouders with the Egges and Sope, and make thereof rounde balles. If one Egge be not inough take as many as you shall thinke good. And when you wyll take out any spott of grease, washe the place of the spott on both sydes of the cloth with fayre water, then rubbe it with the saide balles and cloth upon cloth. This done, washe out the odure with cleane water, and wring the clothe to make the grease or fylth come out the better. Then wash it still with cleane water, and it wyll be cleane.

To take spottes of blacke ynke or other things, out of wollen or linnen clothe.

Take greene Lemons or greene Orenges with theyr pilles, the which the Italians call Pomi de Adam, or which of the two you wyll: take but the liquide moisture which you shall take out by pressing it, wherewith you shall rubbe well the spots, and then let them drye. This done, take luke warme water, and washe the sayde spots, and let them drye agayne. And if you see that at the first time the spots be not wel inough taken out, do it once agayne, and the cloth will returne to his colour agayne.

To take spots out of Scarlete or Veluet of colours, without hurting any thing at all the colour.

Take tho iuyce of Saponaria, called of the Apoticaries Condisi, or Lavaria, the which you shall laye upon the spot leauing it so an houre long, if it be in sommer, and foure houres if it be in Winter: Then take luke warme water and washe the spot with it, and if it scoure not cleane, put more iuyce upon it, or else of the said moisture of the Orenges or Lemons: but if it be Scarlate not died in graine, lay upon halfe Sope, and halfe iuyce: and then washe it with hote water, and the spot wyll go out

To take spottes of oyle from parchement or whyte Paper.

Take sheepes bones and burne them, and make them in to pouder: and rub the spotte on bothe sydes with the same pouder, and lay it so betweene two bourdes in a presse the space of a nyght, and the spotte whal away.

To dye threede, yarne, or linnen cloth into a sad browne.

Take a pounde of bastrde Saffron, the which you shall put into a little bagge, and hang it in ryuer water a day and a night. Then washe it so muche, that it geue no more yellowe coloure: this done, make a ranke of Saffron ina potte not too thicke, then a rew of Saffron, and a rew of ashes, and couer it well, and let it stande seuen or eyght houres: then take eyghte pottes of water, four pottes of Vineger, and putting the Saffron with the ashes in a long bagge and sharpe pointed at the ende: strayne xv or xvi tymes the sayde water & Vineger thorowe it hote. And this is the last dying or coloure.
Then take agayne as muche water and Vineger, & strayne it thorowe, and this shalbe the seconde dying. Do the lyke the thirde tyme, and it shalbe the thirde dying. This colour you shall heate, and lay your threede or linnen clothe in it, the space of a nyghte, then hang it up without wringing or rubbing it. Doo in like manner with the seconde coloure and with the thyrde, but let it lye in it seuen houres long.

To dye threede or linnen cloth blewe.

Take the berries of Ebulus, very rype, and well dryed in the Sunne, laye them in Vineger, xii houres, then rubbe them with your hande, and strayne them throwe a linnen cloth, putting to them some Verdet bruised, and Alome alone. Yf the blewe be to be cleare put more Verdet to it, and lay your threede or linnen cloth in it.

A blewe coloure to dye all thinges.

Take an unce of the beating of copper a dragme of salte, three spoones full of Vineger. Put all togeather in a ladle of Copper: or some other strong vessel of copper: and and when you wyll dye, put the sayd matter into the whole decoction of Brasill, and dye with it what you wyll.

An other waye to dye blewe.

Take three partes of ashes of Lees burned, one part of unslect lyme, and make thereof Lye, let it claririe and then strayne it thorowe a course linnen clothe. Take xv pots of the same water, and poure it upon a pounde of Flaunders blewe, such as is taken of the dyers caudrons, and mingle them well togeather with a sticke. Then sette it on the fyre untill you can scante endure your hande in it. But before you doe dye any thing, you must haue youre linnen cloth boyled in Alome and dryed agayne, and plundged afterwarde in the hote Lye twice or thrice, according as you wyll haue the coloure darke or cleare. The substance must be hoate before you occupye yt.

To dye redde

Take halfe an unce of Brasyll scraped, halfe an unce of Vermilion well brayed. Boyle them togeather in rayne water, and put into it the bignesse of a Nut of Alome. Seeth all unto the halfe, and dye with it. You may seeth also the Brasyll twice or thrice putttyng to it at eche tyme a little Vermilion. Also you may make of it as many dyings and coloures as you wyll.

An other way [to dye redde].

Take unslect lyme, and put a little water upon it, and let it stande a nyght, and afterwarde strayne the clearest thorowe a linnen cloth, and for euery pinte of water put in halfe an unce of scraped brassell. Let it seeth unto the halfe, and put to it halfe an unce of Alome, sette it upon woode, and let it heate, but not seeth. When you wyll, haue that you wyll die, readie prepared, in such sorte as here foloweth. Take Lees of redde wine, and put it in a bagge that all the wine dreane out, and the Lees waxe drye. Make therof balles as bigge as a hennes Egge drying them in the Sunne, and burning them after into ashes, and of this ashes make a strong Lye, and make it very hote, and then weate in it the thing that you wyll dye, drying it afterwarde, and then dye it with the foresayde colour.

To dye redde.

Take for euery pounde of clothe a quarterne of Alome, and seeth it, and put the clothe in it two houres long. Then take the roset of Brasyll with gomme Arabick, and let them seeth a quarter of an houre. Then straine it, and put into it your threede, clothe or any thing that you wyll.

To make fayre Russet.

Take a pottle of water, an unce of Brassyll: seeth them unto the halfe, then take them from the fyre, and putte as much graine to them as you shall thinke good, and halfe a quarter of gumme. Yf you will haue but a sleyght redde, poure it into an other pot, or put to it a quarterne of Alome in pouder, and let it so stande a night.

To dye Woodde, Bones, and Horne, into greene.

Take two partes of Spanishe greene, a thirde part of salt Armoniacke, bray them well together, and put them in Vineger. And put into it the thing that you wyll dye, couering it well, and so let it stande untill it be greene inoughe. But before you dye any thing you muste lay it halfe a day in Alome water, and then drye it well agayne.

An other Greene.

Put your horne, or woodde, or that you wyll die, in a varnished pot, and put to it strong Vineger, mingling with it some Verdegrease that is very thick and not cleare. Couer it well, and set it seuen dayes together in a dunghil, and if then it be not greene ynough, let it stande there longer. A man may do the lyke with Spanish greene or Verdet.

To die horne, bone, and wodde, into redde.

Take quicke lyme, and cast some rayne water upon it, and let it so stande a night: the next morning, strayne the clearest thorowe a lynnen cloth, putting to it for euery pott of water, half an unce of the scrapings of Brasill, and let them seeth well in it: but yet they muste bee boyled in Alome first as before is sayde.

To dye yellowe.

Take the barke of an Apple tree, not the outward harde and rough barke, but the inward, cut it in small loppins, and poure some water upon them, and then put in your woode, bone or horne, to it with Alome, And let it seeth well together.

To dye blacke.

Take Galles broken or bruised in peeces, and seeth them in strong Vineger: and put your Woode, bone, or horne in it. And let all seeth well together. Take them then out, and put them in whites of Egges, putting to it iuyce of Walnuts, and let them seeth well together.

An other maner how to dye bones or Iuorie, into the colour of an Emeraude.

Take Aqua fortis separatiua, and putte therein to freate and dissolue, as muche Copper or Brasse, as the water is able with her force to dissolue and loose: this dooen, put in what peece of woorke you will, being firste cutte in the forme that you will haue it, as Haftes for kniues, penkniues, ynkehornes, Images, or any other thing to your fantasie, leaue theim in it the space of a night, and thei shalbe of the colour of an Emeraude. Now, if in steade of Copper or Brasse, you did putte in Siluer, it would bee the better.

To dye bones red, blewe, or of any colour you will.

First boile your bones in Alome water, then take quick Lime water, or pisse, and in this water or pisse, you shall putte Brasill, Azure, or an hearbe called Rubia, whiche the Apotecaries call Rubra maior, and Rubra tinctorum, or Rubea tinctorum, in Englishe Madder, wherewith thei coloure Wooll or Skinnes, or what other coloure you will, and then seeth your bones or Iuorie therein, and thei will take suche colour as you put in.

To dye Skinnes blewe, or of the colour of Azure.

Hauyng first well washed the skinne, and then wrong hym, take the berries of Walworte, and Elder berries, and seeth them in water, wherein roche Alome was dissolued, passe hym once through this water, and lette hym drie, then passe hym againe through the same water, and beeyng wiped and dried againe, washe hym with cleare water, then scrape out that water with the backe of a knife, and once againe passe it ouer with the same colour, and let it drie, so shall it bee of a very Blewe, or Azure colour.

To dye Skinnes in Madder, called in Latine Rubra maior, or Rubra tinctorum, into a reddishe colour.

Hauyng annointed, washed, wrung, and laied abroad the skinne, as is aforesaid, weate it with water hat white Wine Lees, and baie Salte haue been boiled in, and then wryng hym. Then take creuises, or Crabbes shelles, (bee thei of the Sea, or of the River) burned into Ashes, the whiche you shall temper with the saied water of the Lees and Salte, and rubbe well the skinne therewith, then washe hym well with cleare water, and wryng hym. This dooen, take the redde colour tempered with water of Lees, and rubbe the skinne well ouer, and ouer with it, and then with the foresaied ashes, washyng and wryngyng it three times. Finally, after you haue washed hym, and wrong hym, if you thinke it bee not well enough, you shall giue hym once diyng with Brasill. The paiste or masse of Rubra tinctorum muste bee made with water, that Lees or Tartre hath been boiled in, and the saied water muste bee luke warme, when you maie make the paiste of the redde colour, the leaue it so the space of a night. After this, put upon the saied Rubra tinctorum, a little Alome, dregges or lees, or Alome Catinum, steeped in water. You maie also adde to it the colour of the shearyng of Scarlet, whiche hath been taken out boilyng in Lye, whiche is a goodly secrete.

To dye Skinnes greene.

Annointe the skinne, and washe hym well with cold water, and then in hotte water, and so wipe and drie hym. This dooen, take of the graines wherewith menne make the the Sapgreene (the decoction whereof shalbee put in the ende of this booke, with theim of all other necessarie thynges) and the saied Graines or berries muste bee verie ripe, then putte theim in cleare water, couered a finger heighth, put therein also roche Alome, and giue theim onely one waume on the fire. This dooen, straine theim out into some vessell, then take the skinne, and folde hym in the middle, rubbyng hym well on bothe sides, with the saied sodden graines or berries, which remaine in the panne, and after with rawe Alome pouder. This dooen, take the Ashes of Sheepes doung burned, and weate it with the saied colour, that you strained into the saied vessell, and rubbe the skinne well on euery side, then cleare hym againe of the saied graines, and washe hym with cleare water, and set hym to drie without wipyng hym. Finally, caste on hym to glassefulles of the saied colour, and it will be a perfect greene.

An other waie to dye Skinnes greene.

Let the skinne bee annointed, well washed, wroung and stretched out, as before, then take of the same graines and berries ye tooke before, whiche you shall stampe, and seeth in roche Alome water, and giue the skinne twoo wipes ouer with this colour, and so let it drie. After this, ye shall giue hym one diyng or colouryng of yeallowe, made with the graines or berries of Nerprum, sodden in water and Alome, and a little Saffron, and you shall haue an excellent greene.

To dye the saied Skinnes an other waie.

Take the Skinne beeyng annointed, washed, and spread abrode, dye and colour hym with the colour made of Sapp greene, and put to it a fewe Ashes weate in water, and so rubbe the skinne all about. And when you haue washed, and wiped hym againe, giue hym one wipe ouer with an Indian colour sodden in roche Alome. And when it is drie, laie on it of the foresaied yealowe, and you shall haue a faire and liuely greene.

An other waie to dye Skinnes of Azure colour, and faire.

Take the skinnes of blacke Grapes, and rub well your Leather withall, untill it waxe somewhat blewe, and also rubbe it well with the pouder of Indicum, then washe it drie, and poolishe it. Then steepe the indicum in thicke redde wine: and when the skinne is washed, annointe hym with it, and you shall haue a faire skinne Azured blewe.

To dye Skinnes redde.

Washe well your skinnes, and laie them in Galle, leauyng theim so the space of twoo howers, and then wryng theim, and giue theim one wipe ouer with the colour of Ligustrum, sodde in water, and Alumen fecis. Then put to them some Spanishe greene, at your discretion. This dooen, giue them twoo diynges or colours, of, or with Brasill sodden or boiled with Lye. And note, that if you will dye Neates Leather, or Spanishe Skinnes, you must boile the Ligustrum in sweete and celare Lye.

An other maner to dye Skinnes greene.

Ye shall take ripe Elder berries, and the berries of Walword, and of Sap greene, and this well stamped, you shall putte to it roche Alome, as much as you shall thinke good, but rather to muche then to little: then take the Lye, and put into it the saied berries of Sapgreene, and sieeth them one waume. This doen, put in the berries of the Walwort, or Elder, & make them seeth also one waume, then take theim from the fire, and let theim coole, and after rubbe the skinnes with them. Finally, you shall caste uppon them, the ashes of Sheepes doung, rubbyng them well with it. After this giue theim the coloured water, that the saied Graines or Berries were sodden in, then take of the water with a Curriers knife, and let them drie. And if you neede to giue them more colour, then you maie put in more Indicum boiled, and it will be the better.

To dye Neates leather into a greene colour, as well in Gall as in leaues.

Polishe well the leather with a Pomeise stone, annointe it well with oile, and washe it: then take an unce or two of Galles stamped, and put it in hote water, leauyng it so an howre, then straine it through a Linnen clothe, and put the Leather into the same water, rubbyng it well with your handes, and leaue it so the space of an howre: and hauyng taken it out, wryng it and stretche it abrode, and tight it. Then take the Graines or berries of Nerprum, gathered in Julie, when thei be yet greene: drie them and stampe them well, addyng thereto for euery skinne, twoo unces of roche Alome, beaten in pouder, and mingled wtih the pouder of the saied berries or graines. Then powre uppon the saied pouder boilyng water, and let it coole: This dooen, powre of the saied water with the said graines upon the skinne, rubbyng it well ouer with the palme of youre hande, then steepe the Ashes of Goates doung in the water of the said graines, and with the same water rubbe likewise the skinne well with your hande, after this washe hym, and scrape out the water with a Tanners paryng knife, then tight hym out, and take other ripe graines of Sapgreene, and set them to seeth whole in water with roche Alome, and afterward let them coole. Then take of the saied sodden berries or graines, and rubbe the skinne with them with your handes, and put of the Ashes uppon it, which you shal steepe in the same greene water, that the said berries were sodden in. Finallie, you shall washe the skinne, and take out the water with a scrapyng knife, then you shall giue it a course ouer of the saied greene water, with a brushe or cloute meete for such a purpose: and then laie hym to drie and trimme hym, and you shall haue a faire greene. If you will haue the colour darker, or sadder, when you set the saied graines to seeth with the Alome, you shall putte to it a little Indicum wel braied. And you must note, that the water must bee hotte, when you steepe the Ashes in it, with the water of the graines of Nerprum.

To dye Skinnes with the flowers of Ireos.

Take the freshe flowers of Raphanitis, or Ireos, and stampe them well, then take the drie graines or berries of Nerprum, and with them stampe Roche Alome, a reasonable quantitie, whereof a great deale can dooe no hurte: putte to it a little Raine water, and mingle all this with the foresaied flowers stamped. Keepe this colour in some cleane vessell, and then take the skinnes, beyng annointed and washed, as is aforesaid, and put to them the graines of Sapgreene, with the pouder, in the same manner that we have spoken of the other: washe them, and scrape of the water with a knife, and so let them drie, and giue them one wipe ouer finely, with the saied colour that you kept, let them drie againe, then dresse them accordyng to the science, and you shall haue a faire leather.