Glossary beginning with C

Dictionary of costume terms for Renaissance costume.

caffasearch for term

A 16th century english silk fabric, the patterns of which were either woven or printed with blocks (--Dictionary of Textiles)

Synonyms: capha, caffas, Cafty
calicosearch for term

a cotton cloth imported from India in the 16th century. Primarily white, it also came in some colors. It ranged from a very fine, sheer fabric to a sturdy, close-woven cotton. Its high price and resulting fashionability in the 16th century caused it to begin replacing cambrics, holland and other fine linen fabrics for use in handkerchiefs, doublets, jackets, etc.

Synonyms: calyco, callyco, calliko, Callicoe, callaca, callaga, kalaka
callimancosearch for term

A plain or striped stout worsted cloth. First mentioned at the end of the 16th century. In the 17th century, it was also known as a silk fabric. It's listed with silks in 17th c. custom rate books.

"boccasin: a kind of fine buckram that hath a resemblance of taffeta, also the stuff callimanco". - Cotgrave, 1611

Synonyms: Callimancoes, killymanco, killywanco
caltropsearch for term
Synonyms: galtropes
cambricsearch for term

A fine linen, not so fine as lawn, used for shirts, sleeves, drawn- and cut-work, ruffs, partlets, smocks and household linens such as tablecloths and napkins. It originated in The flemish town of Cambray.

Synonyms: cambrick, camerecke, Camericke, Camerike, cambrycke, camberick, camberyke, cambroke, cambricke, cameryke, camereek, cameryk, cameryck, camerick, camerycke
canionssearch for term

The close-fitting, lower section of men's hose or slops.

Synonyms: Cannions, Canyons, canons
canopysearch for term
Synonyms: canopie, canapies, canapie, canopys, canopies
canvassearch for term
Synonyms: canvis, canves, cammes, canvys, Canuas, canwes, canvese, canvesse
capesearch for term
Synonyms: caip
cardboardsearch for term
Synonyms: paste bourds, paste bourdes
carpetsearch for term
Synonyms: carpett, carpetts, carpets
Carrelssearch for term

"Carrels (carrel&eacuyte;s, carletten) were dress velours of Flemish origin. They had a ground of doubled and twisted yarn and a pile formed into squares in such a way that their pattern somewhat resembvled a tiled surface; hence the name étoffes &agrave carreaux or carrelé. From 1574 onwards some russells men, and before long other weavers, copied these carrels in worsted and sold them as worsted carrels."

-Textile Manufactures in Early England, pg 50

Synonyms: carrells
cassocksearch for term

A loose, hip-length, sleeved coat frequently worn as protective gear when riding or travellling by both men and women. It was associated with soldiers and the military, and was often considered synonymous to dutch cloaks, spanish cloaks, and juppes.

See also: Dutch Cloak, gascoigne coat, juppe Synonyms: cassack, casocke, kassock, casaque, casock, kassocke, cassake, Cassocke, Cassacke, kassacke, cassockes, cassocks
caulsearch for term

A close-fitting, frequently netted cap that fit over the back of a woman's hair

Synonyms: Calls, cawle, cawleworke, cawls, Cawles, caule, cowles, caules, cales, calls
chainsearch for term
Synonyms: chaynn, chene, cheine, cheynes, cheyn, cheane, Cheines
chain lacesearch for term

A narrow lace made of silk and/or gold and silver wrapped silk thread. Used for edging and decorating cloaks, doublets and other garments. Some point to chain lace as a possibly early form of crochet. There are no known 16th c. examples extant, Late 18th and early 19th c. definitions of the term shed some light on what it may have been like:

"chain (or chain-lace): passepoil ou cordonnet. " -- Boyer's Dictionnaire francais-anglais, 1816. (passepoil is a term for piping, cordonnet means cording.)
"Passepoil, m. narrow edging of gold, chain-lace." --French Dictionnaire, 1830.
"Baspel (french, passepoil): chain-lace, edge (of a uniform, etc.), piping (of a lady's dress). Paspeilern, to pipe; to set with chain-lace, to edge."--Flügel's German-English Dictionary, 1894

See also: theine lace Synonyms: cheane lace, chyne lace, cheine Laces, cheine lace, chene lace, chaine Lace, chayne lace, chenye lace, cheine lase, cheyne lace, chean lace, chayne lace
chain-stitchsearch for term

Most likely an embroidery stitch like the modern chain-stitch<

Synonyms: chaine stiche, chayne stiche, chayne stitche, cheyne stitche, chain stitch
chamletsearch for term

Originally chamlet was a soft, fine fabric from the Middle East made of the hair of chamois. By the fifteenth century, Venice was manufacturing a silk-and-hair imitation of the oriental fabric, and Norwich made a worsted chamlet; but the silk chamlet, or chamlet given a silky appearance by a hot press, was a favourite of English wearers from 1423 onward through the 16th century.

By 1525, chamlets were made to show a 'watered' or moire appearance, and thereafter they were designated 'unwatered', or 'watered'.

Synonyms: chamelett, camblett, chamlett, chalmillett, chamlets, chambelett, chamlete, chamlatt, chamblet, camlet, Chamblett, chalmillet, chammillot
changeablesearch for term

changeable taffetas and other fabrics were woven with a warp and weft of different colours, resulting in a fabric that changed colour when viewed from different angles. Taffeta was the preferred weave for changeable warp and weft.

Synonyms: chaungeable, chaungable
changeable taffetasearch for term

Renaissance term for shot silk taffeta, a fabric where the warp was dyed one color and the weft another, resulting in a fabric that changed colour as it hit the light.

Synonyms: chaungeable taphata, shot silk, chaingeable taphata, changable taffata, changable riche taffata
checkeredsearch for term
Synonyms: chequerwise, chekered, cheke, checquered, checker, checkers
chevronsearch for term
Synonyms: cheverne wise, cheuerne wise, cheverne, chevernwise, chevrenewise, chevern, chevernd, chevernewise
cloaksearch for term
Synonyms: Clocke, cloke, clok, cloake, cloakes, Clooke, clock, cloke, cloik, cloikis, cloaks, clockes, cloucke, clocks, clokes, cloks, cloickes
cloak bagsearch for term

This is most likely a 16th century equivalent of a garment bag, used to protect clothing from dirt, wear and destruction by insects.

Synonyms: Cloke Bagges, Cloake bagge, Cloake Bag, Cloakebagges, clokebagge, clokbage, clok bagge, cloke bagge, clokebag, cloake bagges, Cloake baggs, Clooke Bagge
clothsearch for term
Synonyms: klothe, clath, cloath, clayth, claith, cloithe, cloathe, clothe, cloith
cloth-of-goldsearch for term
Synonyms: clothe of golde, cloth of golde, cloth of gold
cloth-of-silversearch for term
Synonyms: cloth of silver, clothe of silver
clothingsearch for term
Synonyms: cloothes, cloathes, clothes
cloudsearch for term
Synonyms: Cloudes, clowdes
cloud lacesearch for term
Synonyms: cloude lase
cloud lacesearch for term

Lace of an airy or delicate form; details of the construction are unknown.

Synonyms: cloude lases, clowde lace
cloudysearch for term
Synonyms: clowdie, clowdye, clodie
coachsearch for term
Synonyms: close Carre, cloose carre
coatsearch for term
Synonyms: cootes, cote, coate, coote, cotte, cottes, cot, Coates, cotes
codsearch for term

term for a stuffed item, a pillow or cushion. pincods were pincushions.

Synonyms: coddes
codware lacesearch for term

Lace used on cushions or pillows.

Synonyms: codwayr lace
coffersearch for term
Synonyms: cofer, Cofers
coifsearch for term

close-fitting linen cap worn by both men and women in early 16th c., mostly by women in the late 16th & early 17th c.

Synonyms: quoives, koyves, coifs, quoyf, quoyffs, coyfs, kyves, cofias, coaffe, coyf, coyfe, Coyfes, quefe, cofia, coif, koyffes, koyfes, coyveses, kyfe, koyf, quayfes, coiffe, coives, coife, quaif, quaiffis, coyves, quoft, quaiff
collarsearch for term
Synonyms: collers, coller
Colognesearch for term

from the town of Cologne<

Synonyms: collonn, Cullen, cullon, cullin
Cologne ribbonsearch for term

A ribbon originally manufactured in Cologne.

Synonyms: cullen Reben, callen Rebande, cullen Reband, cullen Rebande
colorsearch for term
Synonyms: culler, couleur, coloure, collered, couller, cullerit, coullered, coullord, colors, colored, collored, colored, colorid, coloured, cullored, colered, coullord, coullered, collor, collour, cullourit, colore, colour, cullor, coullor, couller, coller, couuler
colored silksearch for term

silk used for embroidery or embellishment

Synonyms: colored silks
combsearch for term
Synonyms: combe, combs, combes
combing clothsearch for term

A light cape worn over clothing while the hair was being combed and dressed, in order not to dirty the clothing with hair, dandruff or oil.

Synonyms: camyng claithis
compass lacesearch for term
Synonyms: compas lase
compass lacesearch for term

The specifics of what kind of lace this was are unknown, though theories abound. May have been an openwork lace with circular patterns or a lace with one edge longer than the other.

"…and a wastcoate, to the same of Aurora cullor Sattine, trimmd with a gold, and silver frenchworke open Compass lace and Buttons" --Strong's "Monarchy, Pageantry, Painting, Iconography: Charles I's clothes for the years 1633-1635",

Synonyms: compas laces, compas lase, compas lace
copper lacesearch for term
Synonyms: copper lase
cordedsearch for term

Decorative application of cord

Synonyms: cording, cordid
cordovan leathersearch for term

Fine quality kidskin leather from Cordoba, Spain.

Synonyms: cordeuante, cordevaunte, cordevanne, cordewante, cordevant
cornetsearch for term
Synonyms: Cornettes, Cornett, Cornetts
cottonsearch for term

In the sixteenth century cotton was a term for a type of thin napped wool fabric.

Synonyms: Cotten, Coten, cuttin, cottene
counterpointsearch for term

A stitched blanket or bed covering, frequently quilted

See also: fruitage Synonyms: counterpoints, countarpoynte, counterpointe, counterpoints, counterpoynte, counterpoyntes, counterpoynts
Coventrysearch for term

A town known in the 16th century for its production of blue thread, which made up a substantial portion of the town's economy. The thread was much in demand for embroidering upon linen.

Synonyms: coventre, cawventrie, couentry, coventrye, coventrie, cawventrie, couentry, coventrye, coventrie, coventery, coventre
creppinsearch for term
Synonyms: crippen, creppins, crippins, crepens, crippens, crepyns, cryppen, Crepyn, crepens, creppyne, crepins
crewelsearch for term

Crewel lace, made of fine worsted yarn, was used for making fringe, gartering tape, weaving simple laces, and embroidery.

Synonyms: croull, croole, crooles, crewle, croles, cruell, Cruell-Lace, crule
cross-clothsearch for term

The precise shape and use of this was unclear. It was made of linen and frequently mentioned in conjunction with coifs, so it may be another word for forehead cloth. It was worn by men as well as women--a man in Jamestown owned a coif and forehead cloth when he died in 1629.

See also: forehead cloth Synonyms: crosscloth, crosse clothes, crose clothe, crose clothes, cresclothes, cross cloth, crosscloths
cuffsearch for term

ruffs at the wrist

Synonyms: handruffes, sleave hands, cuffes, cuffs, sleve hands, cufes
curlesearch for term

a crepe weave. Curled cypress and curled silk are mentioned in Queen Elizabeth's wardrobe accounts.

Synonyms: curled
curtainsearch for term
Synonyms: Curten, curtin, curtins, curtains, curtens, curteines
cushionsearch for term
Child terms: pillow bere Synonyms: cushyn, quyssyn, quoshion, cusshynes, cushions, Quyshionet, cusshion, cushen, quishions, cusshions, quysshen, quysshens, coddes, quishion, quysshon, quyshion, quysshons, queshenes, cusshen
cutsearch for term
Synonyms: cutt, cute, cutte, cuttes
cut-workcut-worksearch for term

a textile embellishment where linen threads are cut away, and the remaining threads worked over with buttonhole stitch or other similar stitches to form a lace-like pattern.

See also: drawn-work, reticella Synonyms: cute worke, cuttworke, cuttwork, cutworke, cutwork, cutte worke, cut worke, cuttit out werk
cypresssearch for term

a light, transparent material of silk and linen. It was made in plain and crepe weaves, the later called 'crespe', and was used for partlets, veils, headwear and neckwear. It came in black and white. It was sometimes used to veil other materials, especially embroidery of gold.

Gaca, a kind of silke stuffe lyke cypers.-- Minsheu, 1599
Velitta, also a kind of fine lawne or cypress. -- Florio, 1598.
bauero<, a stuffe made of raw silk as curled cipers. Cotgrave, 1611
crespine, a cypress lynyn clothe -- Palsgrave, 1530
crespe, cendall or cypress -- Hollyband..

Synonyms: double cypres, cipers, cypres, cipres, cypresse, crespin, crisp, siprus, crespe, cyperis, cyper, syprese, crusbarde, sips, sypres, Syperes, sypers, sipres, sipers
cinquefoilsearch for term

a floral motif popular in Elizabethan embroidery and textile decoration

Synonyms: cynques
calabersearch for term

fur from the dark-brown squirrel of French Calabre.

See also: miniver, squirrel, squirrel fur Synonyms: calabar, callaper, callaber, Callabre, calloper
civetsearch for term

this is is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The best-known civet species is the African Civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which was obtained a musky scent used in perfumery. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

Synonyms: civett, cyvett, Syvett
coneysearch for term

renaissance term for a rabbit, in costume particularly in the context of rabbit fur. (coney skinnes).

Synonyms: cone, rusken, rabbit, connye, Connies, rabetts, rabbetts, hare skynnes, conyes, conye, Connys, conney, conny, cony, coonny, Rabett, ruskin
cobweb lawnsearch for term

An extremely fine, sheer linen lawn used for veiling, sleeve covers, etc.

Synonyms: cobweb Lawne, copwebbe lawne, cobwebbe lawne, Cobwebe Lawne, Cobwebe Lawne, copweb lawne, copwebb Lawne